Air pollution exists not only outdoor, but also indoor. It has great effects on people, and there are many measures taken to correct the problem.
Ⅰ. Effects of air pollution
1) Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways.
Some individuals are more (1) ______ to pollutants.
-- Young children and elderly people suffer more.
-- People with (2) ______ suffer more.
2) The extent of air pollution effects on individuals depends on (3) ______ to the damaging chemicals.
3) Short-term effects
-- (4) to the eyes, nose and throat
-- upper respiratory infections
-- headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions
4) Long-term effects
-- chronic respiratory disease
-- lung cancer
-- heart disease
-- damage to the brain, nerves, lives or kidneys
Ⅱ. Measure taken to control air pollution
1) The first step: assessment
-- investigate outdoor air pollution
-- develop standards for measuring the type and (5) ______ of some air pollutants
-- determine how much exposure to pollutants is (6) ______
2) Steps to reduce exposure to air pollution
-- outdoor air pollution
· regulation of man-made pollution through (7) ______ , which is usually done through
a variety of (8) ______ that monitor the air and the environment
· prevention through regulation, and through personal, careful attention to (9) ______
with the environment
-- indoor air pollution
· (10) ______ to be reviewed for potential harmful, effects
· adequate ventilation
· smoking to be restricted
Mr. Green would like to live in the west coast of Canada NOT because ______.
A it is rich
B it has pleasant climate
C it has loads of coastline
D it is near America
Which of the following statements about traveling is TRUE according to Mr. Green?
A Traveling is only a time for him to have a rest.
B Traveling provides him with a lot of experience.
C He is free from responsibility when traveling.
D He changes a lot every time after travelin
Why does Mr. Green often travel with other people he knows well?
A Because he will have someone to talk with during the trip.
B Because traveling alone is dangerous.
C Because the expense can be reduced in this way.
D Because they have many similarities.
Which of the following did NOT happen to Mr. Green when he was traveling?
A He slept in a prison in Germany.
B He was nearly killed in Devon.
C He managed to reach the center of the Middle East war.
D He took a train on which he was threatened by a murderer.
Mr. Green affords his traveling by all of the following EXCEPT ______.
A working for his friends living in the place he's visiting
B singing and giving concerts during the trip
C living cheaply when traveling
D money from his main work
The protest near Seoul was ______.
B in vain
D under control
The free trade talks will ______.
A achieve expected results
B last another 3 years
C resume in December
D come to an end next year
A collapse of Iraq government may lead to all of the following EXCEPT ______.
A chaos in the region
B stronger radical Islamic extremists
C Iran's gaining new recruits
D Iran's pursuing nuclear weapons openly
What do Democratic and Republican Senators think of President Bush's decision to send troops to Iraq?
A They both support it.
B They both oppose it.
C They both remain neutral to it.
D They have different views towards it.
He is waiting for the airline ticket counter when he first notices the young woman. She has glossy black hair pulled tightly into a knot at the back of her head and carries over the shoulder of her leather coat a heavy black purse. She wears black boots of soft leather and her beauty quickens his heart beat.
The airline clerk interrupts. The man gives up looking at the woman -- he thinks she may be about twenty-five -- and buys a round-trip, coach class ticket to an eastern city.
His flight leaves in an hour. To kill time, the man steps into one of the airport cocktail bars and orders a scotch and water. While he sips it he catches sight of the black-haired girl in the leather coat. She is standing near a Travelers Aid counter, deep in conversation with a second girl, a blond in a cloth coat trimmed with gray fur. He wants somehow to attract the brunette's attention, to invite her to have a drink with him before her own flight leaves for wherever she is traveling, but even though he believes for a moment she is looking his way he cannot catch her eye from out of the shadows of the bar. In another instant the two women separate; neither of their direction is toward him. He orders a second Scotch and water.
When next he sees her, he is buying a magazine to read during the flight and becomes aware that someone is jostling him. At first he is startled that anyone would be so close as to touch him, but when he sees who it is he musters a smile.
"Busy place," he says.
She looks up at him -- is she blushing? -- and an odd grimace crosses her mouth and vanishes. She moves away from him and joins the crowds in the terminal.
The man is at the counter with his magazine, but when he reaches into his back pocket for his wallet the pocket is empty. Where could I have lost it? He thinks. His mind begins enumerating the credit cards, the currency, the membership and identification cards; his stomach churns with something very like fear. The girl who was so near to me, he thinks -- and all at once he understands that she has picked his pocket.
What is he to do? He still has his ticket, safely tucked inside his suitcoat -- he reaches into the jacket to feel the envelope, to make sure. He can take the flight, call someone to pick him up at his destination -- since he cannot even afford bus fare -- conduct his business and fly home. But in the meantime he will have to do something about the lost credit cards -- call home, have his wife get the numbers out of the top desk drawer, phone the card companies -- so difficult a process, the whole thing suffocating. What shall he do?
First, find a policeman, tell what has happened, describe the young woman, damn her. He grits his teeth. He will probably never see his wallet again.
He is trying to decide if he should save time for talking to a guard near the X-ray machines when he is appalled and elated to see the black-haired girl. She is seated against a front window of the terminal, taxis and private cars moving sluggishly beyond her in the gathering darkness: she seems engrossed in a book. A seat beside her is empty, and the man occupies it.
"I've been looking for you," he says.
She glances at him with no sort of recognition. "I don't know you," she says.
"Sure you do."
She sighs and puts the book aside. "Is this all you characters think about -- picking up girls like we were stray animals? What do you think I am?"
"You lifted my wallet," he says. He is pleased to have said "lifted", thinking it sounds wordier than stole or took or even ripped off.
"I beg your pardon?" the girl says.
"I know you did -- at the magazine counter. If you'll just give it back, we can forget the whole thing, If you don't, then I'll hand you over to the police."
She studies him, her face serious. "All right," she says. She pulls the black bag onto her lap, reaches into it and draws out a wallet.
He takes it from her. "Wait a minute," be says. "This isn't mine."
The girl runs, he bolts after her until he hears a woman's voice behind him:
"Stop, thief! Stop that man!"
Ahead of him the brunette disappears around a comer and in the same moment a young man in a marine uniform puts out a foot to trip him up. He falls hard, banging knee and elbow on the tile floor of the terminal, but manages to hang on to the wallet which is not his.
The wallet is a woman's, fat with money and credit cards, and it belongs to the blonde in the fur trimmed coat -- the blonde he has earlier seen in conversation with the criminal brunette. She, too, is breathless, as is the police man with her.
"That's him," the blonde girl says. "He lifted my billfold."
It occurs to the man that he cannot even prove his own identity to the policeman.
Two weeks later -- the embarrassment and rage have diminished, the family lawyer has been paid, the confusion in his household has receded -- the wallet turns up without explanation in one morning's mall. It is intact, no money is missing, all the cards are in place. Though he is relieved, the man thinks that for the rest of his life he will feel guilty around policemen, and ashamed in the presence of women.
What can be inferred from the beginning of the story?
A The man was single.
B The man was attracted by the girl.
C The girl paid no attention to the man.
D The man knew the girl.
The word "brunette" in the third paragraph refers to ______.
A the girl in leather coat
B the girl in cloth coat
C the pretty woman in gray fur
D the pretty woman in fashion magazine clothes
Before the man lost his wallet, he had seen the black-haired girl ______.
A only once
C three times
D four times
The man sat beside the black-haired girl to ______.
A accost her
B arrest her
C threaten her
D ask for his wallet back
It can be inferred that ______.
A the man was put into prison
B the man was sued for stealing
C the man convinced the policeman of the truth at the airport
D the girl was arrested at last
Anniversaries are the opium of museums, publishers, theaters and opera houses. Fixing their eyes on some round-number birth or death date of a major creator, they start planning to cash in years before. For 2006, birthdays are the winning numbers: Rembrandt's 400th; Mozart's 250th; and the 100th for Samuel Beckett and Dmitri Shostakovich.
The Dutch have organized a score of Rembrandt shows, starting appropriately with an exhibition based around his mother in the town of his birth, Leiden. Mozart's music will be heard more than usual in churches, concert hails and opera houses around the world, with his birthplace, Salzburg, once again trying to compensate for the indifference it showed him during his lifetime.
But do such anniversaries and accompanying celebrations serve much purpose? Are they just marketing devices to sell tickets to museums and performances? Or do they help draw the attention of younger generations to the giants of Western culture who at times seem crowded out by the pygmies of popular culture?
As it happens, the practice is not new. The birth of Bardolatry, or Shakespeare worship, is generally traced to the Shakespeare Jubilee, which was organized by the actor-manager David Garrick to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the playwright's birth (the jubilee was actually held in 1769, five years after the anniversary, but presumably time was more flexible in those days).
Until then, perhaps surprisingly, Shakespeare was not doing too well. The popularity of many of his plays did not survive the l8-year-long closure of London's theaters during the Civil War and Cromwell's rule. Then, after theaters reopened in 1660 with the Restoration of the monarchy, several of his major works -- "Richard Ⅲ" and "King Lear" among them -- were drastically revised by other playwrights.
Today, Mozart, for one, is hardly in need of revival. No opera house plans a season these days without including at least one of his stage masterpieces: "Le Nozze di Figaro", "Don Giovanni", "Cosi fan tutte" and "Die Zauberflote". His "Requiem", "Coronation Mass" and other sacred works are regularly performed. His instrumental works -- he wrote hundreds -- keep soloists and orchestras busy throughout the year.
A more interesting reflection for Jan. 27, the 250th anniversary of his birth, is: how would Western culture have fared without Mozart?
True, the same question might be asked of myriad great artists who have bequeathed beauty, emotion and understanding. Yet Mozart was unique, not only because he excelled in every kind of music (while, say, Verdi and Wagner were great composers only of opera), but also because, more even than Bach, he turned listening into a deeply personal experience.
There is that perennial: who killed Mozart? In Peter Schaffer's 1979 play, "Amadeus", adapted as an Oscar-winning movie by Milos Forman in 1984, the finger of guilt was pointed at Mozart's contemporary, Antonio Salieri. But even that charge was old hat: Pushkin first raised it in his 1830 play, "Mozart and Salieri", which Rimsky-Korsakov adapted as an opera in 1897. Still, the question is again being trotted out for the anniversary.
No such mystery surrounds Rembrandt's life or death. But if his greatness was only fully recognized in the 19th century, he certainly is in need of no anniversary "special offers" to be admired today. His more than 600 oils are in collections around the world and, whenever selected for exhibitions, they draw huge crowds.
The organizers of Rembrandt 400, as the anniversary has been tagged, evidently again have crowds in mind, hoping that some 250,000 people will travel to the Netherlands for the occasion.
Will Rembrandt's fans cross paths with those of Mozart?
If they did, they might find that their idols have something in common. In his 75 or so self portraits, recording his passage from youth to old age, Rembrandt seems to offer a window into his soul. Cannot Mozart's compositions also be considered as self-portraits? Certainly, it is by displaying their intimacy that they share their genius with us.
But of course only time will define their place in the pantheon. As happened to Rembrandt and many others, great artists are often forgotten before they are enshrined by posterity. After that, thankfully, anniversaries make little difference.
It can be inferred from the passage that ______.
A Mozart's music used to be only played in church
B Mozart's music has always been welcomed by people
C Rembrandt once painted a lot about his mother
D Rembrandt was brought up by his mother only
Which of the following about Shakespeare can NOT be inferred from the passage?
A He became more and more famous after 1769.
B He was born in 1564.
C He was not so famous before 1769.
D His works were especially welcomed by people around 1660.
What does the author think of Mozart?
A He contributed a lot to the development of music.
B He produced more musical works than Bach.
C He based his music on personal experience.
D He excelled more in sacred works than in instrumental works.
What's the author's attitude towards anniversaries?
Since ancient times it has been known that your word is a cause set in motion. In fact, the universe itself is claimed to have emanated from a single primordial sound. In the science of yoga, it is believed that certain Sanskrit words, known as mantras, can bring about magical results, thus you can secure abundance with a certain mantra, peace with another, and so on.
On a more practical level, your word still remains highly potent.
With your words, you can wound someone, sending them into spirals of defeat, and with your words you can heal someone, raising them up from a dismal place to soaring hope and motivation. In fact, the entire field of self-improvement is the transmission of words that will assist others to get a firm perspective and move forward with their lives, fulfilling their dreams and desires.
On a personal level, too, your words affect you. What you say to yourself about anyone or anything affects you, too. If you speak well of someone or something, you bring more of that harmony into your life. And if you speak ill of someone or something, you bring more of that frustration and anger and conflict into your life.
Psychological literature often speaks of numerous cases where a parent's words, spoken casually, can affect the destiny of a child. And the most potent words that a parent can use to affect a child are those spoken at-the time of dying since these are the last words, and the moment is so highly-charged and the awareness so acute, these words become an imperative that the child now feels obligated to never disown.
Words are further charged with the emotion behind them. The stronger the emotion, the more highly charged the words. Many a love affair has fallen by the wayside because of emotionally charged words, which are later regretted.
Despite all this, people use words with the utmost casualness. People wreck their own lives and that of others through the careless use of words. They also accept the words of others as a given truth, when, in fact, all comments by others are merely opinion.
Words are causes set in motion. They are reality-creators.
The most marvelous aspect of words is how they can bend time. The brilliantly crafted words of Shakespeare or the eloquence of Martin Luther King still shape our lives. Words are so sacred that whole buildings are used to archive them and make them available for reading.
A person can rise from poverty to wealth, from sickness to health, and from loneliness to loving companionship simply through exposing themselves to the most beneficial stream of words.
Words not only steal hearts, but shape reality as well. The earth can be a better place because of your choice of words. You can fill lives with the miracles of your words. You can be an agent for positive change and bring out the best in yourself and others simply by how you use words. Words are psychic shape-shifters, use them wisely.
By saying "your word is a cause set in motion", the author means ______.
A words are changeable from time to time
B words can have great influence on other things
C the same word can have different meanings for different people
D words can lead to magic results
According to the author, words can ______.
A kill people
B show people's defeat
C give people hope
D affect the speaker himself
Which is TRUE about words at the time of parents' dying?
A They are often more influential on children than words said on other occasions.
B They are not as effective as those spoken casually.
C Children's awareness of parents' words is always acute.
D These words are imperative for children with great sense of obligation.
The author implies that ______.
A people's emotions are influenced by the words they say
B people should use words with more carefulness
C people should only accept words of others which are truths rather than opinions
D what people experience directly decides what they speak
It can be concluded from the passage that great words ______.
A may be less influential as time passes by
B may improve people's life
C can change the world
D can change time
Setter choice of words can do all of the following EXCEPT ______.
A shaping reality
B making life better
C bringing about positive change
D fulfilling dreams
A funny thing happened on the way to the communications revolution: we stopped talking to one another.
I was walking in the park with a friend recently, and his cell phone rang, interrupting our conversation. There we were, walking and talking on a beautiful sunny day and -- poof! -- I became invisible, absent from the conversation.
The park was filled with people talking on their cell phones. They were passing other people without looking at them, saying hello, noticing their babies or stopping to pet their puppies. Evidently, the untethered electronic voice is preferable to human contact.
The telephone used to connect you to the absent. Now it makes people sitting next to you feel absent. Recently I was in a car with three friends. The driver shushed the rest of us because he could not hear the person on the other end of his cell phone. There we were, four friends zooming down the highway, unable to talk to one another because of a gadget designed to make communication easier.
Why is it that the more connected we get, the more disconnected I feel? Every advance in communications technology is a setback to the intimacy of human interaction. With e-mail and instant messaging over the Internet, we can now communicate without seeing or talking to one another. With voice mail, you can conduct entire conversations without ever reaching anyone. If my mom has a question, I just leave the answer on her machine.
As almost every conceivable contact between human beings gets automated, the alienation index goes up. You can't even call a person to get the phone number of another person anymore. Directory assistance is almost always fully automated.
Pumping gas at the station? Why say good-morning to the attendant when you can swipe your credit card at the pump and save yourself the both.
Making a deposit at the bank? Why talk to a clerk who might live in the neighborhood when you can just insert your card into the ATM?
Pretty soon you won't have the burden of making eye contact at the grocery store. Some supermarket chains are using a self-scanner so you can check yourself out, avoiding those annoying clerks who look at you and ask how you are doing.
I am no Luddite. I own a cell phone, an ATM card, a voice-mall system, an e-mail account. Giving them up isn't an option -- they're great for what they're intended to do. It's their unintended consequences that make me cringe.
More and more, I find myself hiding behind e-mall to do a job meant for conversation. Or being relieved that voice mail picked up because I didn't really have time to talk. The industry devoted to helping me keep in touch is making me lonelier -- or at least facilitating my antisocial instincts.
So I've put myself on technology restriction: no instant messaging with people who live near me, no cell-phoning in the presence of friends, no letting the voice mall pick up when I'm home.
What good is all this gee-whiz technology if there's no one in the room to hear you exclaim, "Gee whiz?\
Saying "the untethered electronic voice is preferable to human contact", the author is ______.
A telling the truth
B expressing his opinion
C being sarcastic
D describing a problem
What can NOT communications technology do according to the passage?
A To help people communicate without seeing each other.
B To help conduct the conversation without talking with each other directly.
C To help people get other's phone numbers.
D To help shorten the distance between peopl
The word "Luddite" in paragraph 10 is closest in meaning to ______.
D isolated from the outside world
What does the author think of communications technology?
A Convenient but threatening.
C Marvelous and indispensable.
D Important but inaccessibl
It can be inferred from the passage that the author would NOT ______.
A send messages to people living far from her
B use cell-phones on no occasion
C answer the phone himself when at home
D use the ATM card when necessary
Who was the first great American poet to use free verse?
A. Edgar Allen Poe
B. Walt Whitman
C. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
D. Henry David Thoreau
The Renaissance was a European phenomenon originated in ______.
Semantic triangle is made up of reference, symbol and ______.
D. words or phrases
Which of the following is NOT in London?
A. Brooklyn Bridge
B. St. Paul's Cathedral
C. Westminster Abbey
D. Buckingham Palaces
Percy Bysshe Shelley was famous for ______.
A. Ode to a Nightingale
B. Ode to Autumn
C. The rime of Ancient Mariner
D. Prometheus Unbound
The capital city of Northern Ireland is ______.
President Jefferson bought ______ from France and doubled the country's territory.
A. New Mexico
B. the Louisiana Territory
Which American university is with the longest history?
How many syllables does the word "syllable" have?
Semantics is the study of ______.
Human vision like that of other primates has evolved in an arboreal
environment. In the dense complex world of a tropical forest, it is more
important to see well to develop an acute sense of smell. In the 1 ______
course of evolution members of the primate line has acquired large 2 ______
eyes while the snout has shrunk to give the eye an unimpeding view. 3 ______
Of mammals only humans and some primates enjoy color vision. The red
flag is black to the bull. Horses live in a monochrome world. Light visible to
human eyes, therefore, occupies only a very narrow band in the whole 4 ______
electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to humans though
ants and honeybees are insensitive to them. Humans have no direct perception 5 ______
of infrared rays like the rattlesnake that has receptors tuned into 6 ______
wavelengths longer than 0. 7 micron. The world would look eery different 7 ______
if human eyes are sensitive to infrared radiation. Then instead of the darkness 8 ______
of night, we would be able to move easily in a strange shadowless world
where objects glowed with varying degrees of intensity. But human eyes excel
in other way. They are in fact remarkably discerning in color gradation. 9 ______
The color sensitivity of normal human vision is rarely surpassed even 10 ______
sophisticated technical devices.
Is a translation meant for readers who do not understand the original? This would seem to explain adequately the divergence of their standing in the realm of art. Moreover, it seems to be the only conceivable reason for saying "the same thing" repeatedly. For what does a literary work "say"? What does it communicate? It "tells" very little to those who understand it. Its essential quality is not statement or the imparting of information. Yet any translation which intends to perform a transmitting function cannot transmit anything but information -- hence, something inessential. This is the hallmark of bad translations. But do we not generally regard as the essential substance of a literary work what it contains in addition to information -- as even a poor translator will admit -- the unfathomable, the mysterious, the "poetic", something that a translator can reproduce only if he is also a poet? This, actually, is the cause of another characteristic of inferior translation, which consequently we may define as the inaccurate transmission of an inessential content. This will be true whenever a translation undertakes to serve the reader. However, ff it intended for the reader, the same would have to apply to the original. If the original does not exist for the reader's sake, how could the translation be understood on the basis of this premise?
Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic:
Do Famous People Deserve High Incomes?
In the first part of your essay you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.