What is a research proposal?
1) intended to convince others that
-- you have a worthwhile (1) ______
-- you have the (2) ______ and work-plan to complete it
2) usually structured in the same way as (3) ______
Ⅱ. How to write a research proposal?
-- to be concise and (4) ______
-- often in terms of a functional relationship
-- a brief summary of about 300 words
-- including (5) ______, the rationale for study, the hypothesis, the method and main findings
-- purpose: to provide the background for the research problem
-- frame: to paint your research question in broad brushes and bring out its significance
· to put the research question in the context of a current hot area, or an older area still viable
· to provide a brief but appropriate (6) ______
· to provide the contemporary context
4) (7) ______
-- many different ways to organize this part
-- use of subheadings to bring order and coherence to this part
--purpose: to provide your work plan and describe the activities necessary for the completion of your project
-- guiding principle: sufficient information to justify the soundness of the methodology
· to demonstrate your knowledge of (8) ______ and prove that your method is the most appropriate
· to use qualitative method and justify it
· to be more elaborate than what is required for traditional quantitative research
-- no results at the proposal stage
-- to have some idea of data to be collected and statistical procedures to be used
-- to convince readers of (9) ______ of the proposed research
-- to include merits as well as (10) ______ of your research
What is essential for a good interviewer?
A Professional knowledge.
B Experience in the area.
C Curiosity about interviews.
D Enthusiasm about the jo
Why should Michael match the interview back to tell whether it's been a good one?
A Because he isn't confident enough in himself.
B Because he usually is too indulged in the interview to be aware of his own performance.
C Because television interview is often more interesting than it actually is.
D Because television interview depends much on the way the director shoots it.
How does Michael manage to bring out the best in people?
A By communicating with them in advance.
B By great sense of humor during the interview.
C By doing thorough research into them in advance.
D By asking thought-provoking questions.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about Michael when he is doing interviews?
A He always sticks to his list of questions.
B He often finds interviewees talk about something that he's not really thought about.
C He sometimes lets the interviewee direct the flow of conversation.
D He doesn't have a list of questions at all.
What does Michael think of a career as an interviewer?
A It's a good job for young people with talent, ambition and energy.
B Talent plays the most important role in the career.
C One has to pass several examinations to pursue a career as an interviewer.
D It sometimes can be very borin
Where was the report about rebel forces from?
A Chad's government.
B Capital N'Djamena.
C French embassy.
D City of Abech
France's ambassador has left Rwanda to ______.
A stay away from possible danger
B show France's power
C cut the connection between the two countries
D arrest some of the top Rwanda officials
The alleged plotters were said to have ______.
A bomb-making videos
B guns and bombs
C poisonous gas-making equipment
D bomb-making equipment
How many people were found not guilty?
It was a little after 5 a.m. in my home when Jerzy Dudek, the Polish goalkeeper of Liverpool Football Club, saved a penalty from Andriy Shevcbenko, a Ukrainian playing for AC Milan. The save ended the most exciting sporting event you will ever see, secured for Liverpool the top European soccer championship for the first time in 21 years, and allowed me to breathe. Within seconds, my wife had called from London, and the e-mails started to flood in -- the first from TIME's Baghdad bureau, others from Sydney, London, Washington and New York. In my fumbled excitement, I misdialed my brother's phone number three times. Then Steven Gerrard, Liverpool's captain, lifted the trophy, and behind the Cantonese chatter of the TV commentators I could just make out 40,000 Liverpudlian voices singing their club's anthem, You'll Never Walk Alone. And that's when I started to cry.
Apart from the big, obvious things -- love, death, children -- most of the really walloping emotional highs and lows of my life have involved watching Liverpool. There was the ecstasy of being in the crowd when the club won the European championship in 1978, and the horror of settling down in my office for a 1985 European championship game -- only to watch Juventus fans get crushed to death when some Liverpool supporters rioted. Through long experience, my family has come to know that their chances of having a vaguely pleasant husband and father on any given Sunday depend largely on how Liverpool fared the previous day. But what on earth makes this -- let's admit it -- pretty unsophisticated devotion to the fortunes of men I've never met and don't really want to so powerful?
Fandom -- the obsessional identification with a sports team -- is universal. The greatest book ever on the psychology of being a fan, Nick Hornby's Fever Pitch, was written about a London soccer team but easily translated into a film about the Boston Red Sox. Particularly in the U. S., it seems possible to be a fan of a team that's based far from where you have ever lived, but I suspect the origins of my obsession are more common. I didn't have much choice in the matter. Both my parents were born in tiny row houses a stone's throw from Liverpool's stadium. My father took me to my first game as a small child, and from the moment I saw what was behind the familiar brick walls -- all those people ! That wall of noise! The forbidden, dangerous smells of cigarettes and beer! I was hooked.
We fans like to describe our passion in religious terms, as if the places our heroes play are secular cathedrals. It's easy to see why. When you truly, deeply love a sports team, you give yourself up to something bigger than yourself, not just because your individuality is rendered insignificant in the mass of the crowd, but because being a fan involves faith. No matter what its current form may be, your team is worthy of blind devotion -- or will soon redeem itself. Belief is all. As Brooklyn Dodgers fans said in the 1950s: wait ‘ til next year.
But as you get older, it becomes harder to believe. Yes, the Dodgers won the World Series in 1955; but they aren't ever coming back from Los Angeles. Loss of faith can set in. That, however, is when you appreciate the deeper benefits of being a fan. For me, 'following one soccer team has been the connective tissue of my life. I left Liverpool to go to college and have never had the slightest desire to live there again, but wandering around the world, living in seven different cities in three continents, my passion was the thing that gave me a sense of what "home" meant. Being a fan became a fixed point, wherever I lived; it was -- it is -- one of the two or three things that I think of as making me, well, me.
But fandom does more. than defeat distance and geography. It acts as a time machine. There is only one thing that I have done consistently for nearly 50 years, and that is support Liverpool. To be a fan is a blessing, for it connects you as nothing else can to childhood, and to everything and everyone that marked your life between your time as a child and the present. So when I sat in Hong Kong at dawn last week watching the game on TV, I didn't have to try to manufacture the tiny, inconsequential strands that make up a life. They were there all around me. Tea at my Grandma's after a game; a favorite uncle who died too young; bemused girlfriends who didn't get it (I married the one who did); the 21st birthday cake that my mother iced in Liverpool's colors; my tiny daughters in their first club shirts; the best friends with whom I've long lost touch. What does being a fan mean? It means you'll never walk alone.
The passage was probably written in ______.
Which of the following is NOT true about the author?
A He is a fan of Liverpool football team.
B He is calm when watching football games.
C His emotions are often greatly influenced by whether Liverpool can win the match.
D His family members understand his great enthusiasm about Liverpool.
The word "random" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ______.
A football team
B sports fanaticism
C psychological disorder
D unreasonable behavior
The author is a fan of Liverpool because ______.
A his parents are Liverpool fans
B his favorite football player is in Liverpool
C his father took him to watch the game when he was small
D he often watched Liverpool games on TV when he was small
According to the author, random can do all EXCEPT ______.
A to shorten distance
B to remind you of childhood
C to give you a sense of home
D to make you find true love
Isn't it amazing how one person, sharing one idea, at the right time and place can change the course of your life's history? This is certainly what happened in my life. When I was 14, I was hitchhiking from Houston, Texas, through El Paso on my way to California. I was following my dream, journeying with the sun. I was a high school dropout with learning disabilities and was set on surfing the biggest waves in the world, first in California and then in Hawaii, where I would later live.
Upon reaching downtown El Paso, I met an old man, a bum, on the street comer. He saw me walking, stopped me and questioned me as I passed by. He asked me if I was running away from home, I suppose because I looked so young. I told him, "Not exactly, sir," since my father had given me a ride to the freeway in Houston and given me his blessings while saying, "It is important to follow your dream and what is in your heart, son."
The bum then asked me if he could buy me a cup of coffee. I told him, "No, sir, but a soda would be great." We walked to a comer malt shop and sat down on a couple of swiveling stools while we enjoyed our drinks.
After conversing for a few minutes, the friendly bum told me to follow him, He told me that he had something grand to show me and share with me. We walked a couple of blocks until we came upon the downtown El Paso Public Library.
We walked up its front steps and stopped at a small information stand. Here the bum spoke to a smiling odl lady, and asked her if she would be kind enough to watch my things for a moment while he and I entered the library. I left my belongings with this grandmotherly figure and entered into this magnificent hall of learning.
The bum first led me to a table and asked me to sit down and wait for a moment while he looked for something special amongst the shelves. A few moments later, he returned with a couple of old books under his arms and set them on the table. He then sat down beside me and spoke. He started with a few statements that were very special and that changed my life. He said, "There are two things that I want to teach you, young man, and they are these: "number one is to never judge a book by its cover, for a cover can fool you." He followed with, "I bet you think I'm a bum, don't you, young man?"
I said, "Well, uh, yes, I guess so, sir."
"Well, young man, I've got a little surprise for you. I am one of the wealthiest men in the world. I have probably everything any man could ever want. I originally come from the Northeast and have all the things that money can buy. But a year ago, my wife passed away, bless her soul, and since then I have been deeply reflecting upon life. I realized there were certain things I had not yet experienced in life, one of which was what it would be like to live like a bum on the streets. I made a commitment to myself to do exactly that for one year. For the past year, I have been going from city to city doing just that. So, you see, don't ever judge a book by its cover, for a cover can fool you."
"Number two is to learn how to read, my boy, for there is only one thing that people can't take away from you, and that is your wisdom." At that moment, he reached forward, grabbed my right hand in his and put them upon the books he'd pulled from the shelves. They were the writings of Plato and Aristotle -- immortal classics from ancient times.
The bum then led me back past the smiling old woman near the entrance, down the steps and back on the streets near where we first met. His parting request was for me to never forget what he taught me.
We can infer from the passage that at 14, the author ______.
A did not do well in his study
B did not like his mother
C planned to live in California all his life
D did not like his life in Huston
The author recognized the old man as a bum probably because ______.
A the old man asked for money from him
B the old man was sleeping on the street comer
C the old man was poorly dressed
D the old man told him so
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the old man?
A He was a bum.
B His wife died when he was young.
C He knew the author.
D He had thought the author a truant.
The old man implied to the author that ______.
A truths couldn't be disguised by covers
B wisdom could come from reading
C his wife's death made him depressed for years
D be liked the life of a bum
The author probably feels ______ the old man.
A grateful to
B sympathetic for
C uneasy about
D indifferent to
It takes a while, as you walk around the streets of Nantes, a city of haft a million people on the banks of the Loire River, to realize just what it is that is odd. Then you get it: there are empty parking slots, which is highly unusual in big French towns.
Two decades of effort to make life more livable by dissuading people from driving into town Nas made Nantes a beacon for other European cities seeking to shake dependence on the automobile.
The effects were clear recently during Mobility Week, a campaign sponsored by the European Union that prompted more than 1,000 towns across the Continent to test ways of making their streets, if not car free, at least manageable. "That is an awfully difficult problem," acknowledges Joel Crawford, an author and leader of the "car free" movement picking up adherents all over Europe. "You can't take cars out of cities until there is some sort of alternative in place. But there are a lot of forces pointing in the direction of a major reduction in car use, like the rise in fuel prices, and concerns about global warming."
Last week, proclaiming the slogan "In Town, Without my Car !" hundreds of cities closed off whole chunks of their centers to all but essential traffic. Nantes closed just a few streets, preferring to focus on alternatives to driving so as to promote "Clever Commuting", the theme of this year's EU campaign. Volunteers pedaled rickshaws along the cobbled streets, charging passengers $1.20 an hour; bikes were available for free; and city workers encouraged children to walk to school along routes supervised by adults acting as Pied Pipers and picking up kids at arranged stops.
The centerpiece is a state-of-the-art tramway providing service to much of the town, and a network of free, multistory parking lots to encourage commuters to "park. and ride". Rene Vincendo, a retired hospital worker waiting at one such parking lot for his wife to return from the city center, is sold. "To go into town, this is brilliant," he says. "I never take my car in now."
It is not cheap, though. Beyond the construction costs, City Hall subsidizes fares to the tune of 60 million euros ( $ 72 million) a year, making passengers pay only 40 percent of operating costs.
That is the only way to draw people onto trams and buses, says de Rugy, since Nantes, like many European cities, is expanding, and commuters find themselves with ever-longer distances to travel. The danger, he warns, is that "the further you go down the route Of car dependence, the harder it is to return, because so many shops, schools and other services are built beyond the reach of any financially feasible public-transport network." This, adds de Rugy, means that "transport policy is only half the answer. Urban planners and transport authorities have to work hand in hand to ensure that services are provided close to transport links."
The carrot-and-stick approach that Nantes has taken -- cutting back on parking in the town center and making it expensive, while improving public transport -- has not reduced the number of cars on the road. But. it has "put a brake on the increase we would have seen otherwise" and that other European cities have seen, says Dominique Godineau, head of the city's "mobility department".
What can be inferred about the city of Nantes?
A Nantes is with the best traffic condition in France.
B Nantes used to be crowded with cars.
C The government of Nantes is the first to dissuade people from driving into town.
D The government of Nantes succeeds in raising people's living standar
Car use can be reduced because of all of the following EXCEPT ______.
A rise in fuel price
B alternatives for car
C people's environmental awareness
D heavy traffic jam
What's the difference between Nantes and other cities which want reduction in car use?
A Nantes gets more serious traffic problems.
B Nantes doesn't close off any streets.
C Nantes has better public transport system.
D Nantes pays more attention to alternatives to drivin
According to the passage, the tram way and multistory parking lots are ______.
A low in cost
B cheap to use
C dismissed by critics
The passage implies that public transport network can replace private cars if ______.
A the city is not so big
B there are more roads and streets
C there are more public transport tools
D there are more services near transport links
"The carrot-and-stick approach" in the last paragraph means ______.
A an approach with pros and cons
B an approach with threat and award
C an efficient approach
D a practical approach
The need for a satisfactory education is more important than ever before. Nowadays, without a qualification from a reputable school or university, the odds of landing that plum job advertised in the paper are considerably shortened. Moreover, one's present level of education could fall well short of future career requirements.
It is no secret that competition is the driving force behind the need to obtain increasingly higher qualifications. In the majority of cases, the urge to upgrade is no longer the result of an insatiable thirst for knowledge. The pressure is coming from within the workplace to compete with ever more qualified job applicants, and in many occupations one must now battle with colleagues in the reshuffle for the position one already holds.
Striving to become better educated is hardly a new concept. Wealthy parents have always been willing to spend the vast amounts of extra money necessary to send their children to schools with a perceived educational edge. Working adults have long attended night schools and refresher courses. Competition for employment has been around since the curse of working for a living began. Is the present situation so very different to that of the past?
The difference now is that the push is universal and from without as well as within. A student at secondary school receiving low grades is no longer as easily accepted by his or her peers as was once the case. Similarly, in the workplace, unless employees are engaged in part-time study, they may be frowned upon by their employers and peers and have difficulty even standing still. In fact, in these cases, the expectation is for careers to go backwards and earning capacity to take an appreciable nosedive.
At first glance, the situation would seem to be laudable -- a positive response to the exhortation by a former Prime Minister, Bob Hawke, for Australia to become the "clever country". Yet there serious ramifications according to at least one educational psychologist. Dr Brendan Gatsby has caused some controversy in academic circles by suggesting that a bias towards what he terms paper excellence might cause more problems than it is supposed to solve. Gatsby raises a number of issues that affect the individual as well as society in general.
Firstly, he believes the extra workload involved is resulting in abnormally high stress levels in both students at secondary school and adults studying after working hours. Secondly, skills which might be more relevant to the undertaking of a sought-after job are being overlooked by employers interviewing candidates without qualifications on paper. These two areas of concern for the individual are causing physical and emotional stress respectively.
Gatsby also argues that there are attitudinal changes within society to the exalted role education now plays in determining how the spoils of working life are distributed. Individuals of all ages are being driven by social pressures to achieve academic success solely for monetary considerations instead of for the joy of enlightenment. There is the danger that some universities are becoming degree factories with an attendant drop in standards. Furthermore, our education system may be rewarding doggedness above creativity -- the very thing Australians have been encouraged to avoid. But the most undesirable effect of this academic paper chase, Gatsby says, is the disadvantage "user pays" higher education confers on the poor, who invariably lose out to the more financially favored.
Naturally, although there is agreement that learning can cause stress, Gatsby's comments regarding university standards have been roundly criticized as alarmist by most educationists who point out that, by any standard of measurement, Australia's education system overall, at both secondary and tertiary levels, is equal to that of any in the world.
What makes higher qualifications important?
A Pressure of competition.
B Thirst for knowledge.
C Development of technology.
D Employers' bias.
What can be inferred about today's employees in the workplace according to the passage?
A They are seldom doing part-time study.
B They may have trouble with work without further study.
C They usually do not get along well with one another;
D They often frown due to pressure from work.
Gatshy considers enthusiastic pursuit of higher qualifications as ______.
Undesirable consequences of ever-going pursuit of higher qualifications include all EXCEPT ______.
A lower education quality
B less creativity of students
C higher stress levels
D higher pays for education
Which region in the U. S. contains 90% of the American textile industry?
A. New England
B. The Midwest
C. The American West
D. The South
The largest lake in Britain is ______.
A. the Lake Neagh
B. Windermere Water
C. Coniston Water
D. the Lake District
Which of the following is Thomas Hardy's best-known novel?
A. Far From the madding Crowd
B. The Mayor of Castorbridge
C. Tess of the D'Urbervilles
D. The Return of the Native
Firth insisted that the object of linguistics is ______.
A. language itself
B. language in actual use
C. language variation
D. language skills
______ is a representative writer of aestheticism and decadence.
B. Ralph Fox
C. George Gissing
D. Oscar Wilde
Which of the following is NOT a tragedy by Shakespeare?
A. The Twelfth Night
C. The Tempest
D. King Lear
The noun "tear" and the verb "tear" are ______.
C. complete homonyms
The Amendment to the Constitution which banned slavery is ______.
A. the 11th Amendment
B. the 12th Amendment
C. the 13th Amendment
D. the 14th Amendment
An allophone refers to any of the different forms of a ______.
The two major political parties in Britain are the Conservative Party and ______.
A. the Liberal Party
B. the Labor Party
C. the Republican Party
D. the Democratic Party
A summary of the physical and chemical nature of life must begin,
not on the Earth, but in the Sun, in fact, at the Sun's very center. It is here
which is to be found the source of the energy that the Sun constantly pours 1 ______
out into space light and heat. This energy is librated at the center of 2 ______
the Sun as billions upon billions of nuclei of hydrogen atoms collide
with each other and fuse together to form nuclei of helium, and doing 3 ______
so, relieve some of the energy that is stored in the nuclei of atoms. 4 ______
The output of light and heat of the Sun requires that some 600 million
tons of hydrogen are converted into helium in the Sun every second. 5 ______
This the Sun has been doing for several thousands of millions of year.
The nuclear energy is released at the Sun's center as high-energy
gamma radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation like light and
radio waves, only of very much short wavelength. This gamma radiation 6 ______
is absorbed by atoms inside the Sun to be reemitted at slight longer 7 ______
wavelengths. This radiation, in its mm is absorbed and reemitte& As the
energy filters through the layers of the solar interior, it passes through
the X-ray part of the spectrum eventually becoming light. At this stage,
it has reached that we call the solar surface, and can escape into space 8 ______
without being absorbed further by solar atoms. A very small fraction of
the Sun's light and heat are emitted in such directions that after 9 ______
passing unhindering through interplanetary space, it hits the Earth. 10 ______
When the leaders of media, telecommunications, IT and Internet companies congregate, as they did recently in Davos, the talk is upbeat about new accomplishments but subdued about recent ordeals: the dotcom bubble; the telecoms crash; the music industry bust; the advertising downturn; the e-publishing revenue stagnation; the PC slowdown; the wireless saturation; the semiconductor slump; the newspaper recession; the R&D retrenchment. And the question is, why do these predicaments sweep over the information sector so regularly?
The prevalence of these problems points to fundamental issues beyond a specific industry or short term period. Instead, we need to recognize that the entire information sector -- from music to newspapers to telecoms to internet to semiconductors and anything in-between -- has become subject to a gigantic market failure in slow motion. A market failure exists when market prices cannot reach a self-sustaining equilibrium. The market failure of the entire information sector is one of the fundamental trends of our time, with far-reaching long-term effects, and it is happening fight in front of our eyes.
The basic structural reason for this problem is that information products are characterized by high fixed costs and low marginal costs. They are expensive to produce but cheap to reproduce and distribute, and therefore exhibit strong economies of scale with incentives to an over-supply. Second, more information products are continuously being offered to users. And information products and services are becoming more "commodified", open, and competitive.
Undoubtedly, our world has changed a lot with the development of science and technology. Some people think that technology has made the world a better place to live. Do you agree or disagree with this? Write an essay of about 400 words to state your view on the following topic:
Has Technology Made The World a Better Place To Live?
In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.