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2017年大学英语考试《专业英语八级》预测试题及答案解析(二十三)
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第 1 题:Listening Comprehension ( Mini-Lecture ):

Cryptic Coloring
Cryptic coloring is by far the commonest use of color in the struggle for existence. It is employed for the purpose of attack as well as of defense, and may be either general or special.
Ⅰ. General resemblance:
It's especially common among the animal inhabiting some
uniformly colored expanse of (1) , such as an ocean or a desert:  
1) Animals are often (2) by their transparent  
blue color or sandy appearance.
2) Equally diverse forms are defended by their sandy appearance.
Ⅱ. Special resemblance:
It's far commoner than general, and usually met with:
1) on the diversified surface of the earth; 2)on the shores;
3) in (3) water; 4)on the surface of the ocean.  
The (4) of coloring, shape, and attitude produces a more  
or less exact resemblance to some one of (5) in the environment.  
Ⅲ. The attempts have been made along two lines for the
(6) of these mast interesting and elaborate adaptations:  
1) The first explans:
Effect is a result of the direct influence of the environment
upon (7) , or by the inherited effects of efforts and 
the (8) of parts.  
2) The second believes:
(9) produced the result and afterwards maintained it  
by the survival of the best concealed in each generation.
In the present state of science, the only possible hole
of an interpretation (10) the theory of natural selection.   


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第 2 题:Listening Comprehension ( Interview ):

 

1小题>

According to the interview, what happened since Mary Ann were 100?

A She had a blimp ride.

B She had a horse ride.

C She touched the Hollywood sign.

D She stayed at hom

2小题>

Where was Mary Ann born?

A In a small village.

B North of Chicago.

C In Washington.

D In Hawai

3小题>

What does she want to do for her 106th?

A She wants to meet pop singer.

B She wants to meet a superstar.

C She wants to see a movie star.

D She wants to see a movi

4小题>

According to the interview, which of the following is not tree?

A The older she got the more comfortable she was with herself.

B As she got older she no longer ran sacred anymore.

C Now, a lot of people think that part of aging is that they don't get to do the things that they could do, they become inactive, they sit around and watch television.

D When they are getting older they can go out and have fun.

5小题>

From the interview, we can know what is the most important when you are getting old?

A Health.

B Possessions.

C Attitude towards aging.

D Daily lif

第 3 题:Listening Comprehension (News Broadcast):

 

1小题>

Now the U.S. economy growth rate is ______.

A higher than 1995 to 2000

B lower than 1973 to 1995

C as good as 1995 to 2000

D the same as 1993 to 1995

2小题>

Dale Jorgenson points out that the 2.78 grow rate will be continued in the next ______.

A 2 years

B 10 years

C 20 years

D 5 years

第 4 题:Listening Comprehension (News Broadcast):

 

1小题>

What is the reason of the decline of the number of the wild horses?

A Climate change and human activities.

B The hunting and culling.

C Farming and industrializing.

D Mass killing caused by peopl

2小题>

Whom does the provision intend to sell the wild horses for?

A Federal government.

B The horse-lovers.

C The people who kill the wild horse.

D The native peopl

第 5 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):

According to reports in major news outlets, a study published last week included a startling discovery: the nation's Jewish population is in shrinking. The study, the National Jewish Population Survey, found 5.2 million Jews living in the United States in 2000, a drop of 5 percent, or 300,000 people, since a similar study in 1990. What's truly startling is that the reported decline is not true. Worse still, the sponsor of the $6 million study, United Jewish Communities, knows it.
Both it and the authors have openly admitted their doubts. They have acknowledged in interviews that the population totals for 2000 and i990 were reached by different methods and are not directly comparable. The survey itself also cautions readers, in a dauntingly technical appendix, that judgment calls by the researchers may have led to an undercount. When the research director and project director were asked whether the data should be construed to indicate a declining Jewish population, they flatly answered no. In addition, other survey researchers interviewed pointed to other studies with population estimates as high as 6.7 million.
Despite all this, the two figures --5.2 million now, 5.5 million then--are listed by side in the survey, leaving the impression that the population has shrunk. The result, predictably, has been a rash of headlines trumpeting the illusionary decline, in turn touching off jeremiads by rabbis and moralists condemning the religious laxity behind it. Whether out of ideology, ego, incompetence or a combination of all three, the respected charity has invented a crisis.
United Jewish Communities is the coordinating body for a national network of Jewish philanthropies with combined budgets of $2 billion. Its population surveys carry huge weight in shaping community policy. This is not the first time the survey has set off a false alarm. The last one, conducted by a predecessor organization, found that 52 percent of American Jews who married between 1985 and 1990 did so outside the faith. That number was a fabrication produced by including marriages in which neither party was Jewish by anyone's definition, including the researchers.
Its publication created a huge stir, inspiring anguished sermons, books and conferences. It put liberals on the defensive, emboldened conservatives who reject full integration into society and alienated ordinary folks by the increasingly xenophobic tone of Jewish communal culture. The new survey, to its credit, retracts that figure and offers the latest survey has spawned a panic created by the last one.
So why did the organization flawed figures once again? Some scholars who have studied the survey believe the motivation then came partly out of a desire to shock straying Jews into greater observance. It's too early to tell if that's the case this time around. What is clear is the researchers did their job with little regard to how their data could be misconstrued. They used statistical models and question formats that, while internally sound, made the new survey incompatible with the previous one. For example, this time the researchers divided the population of 5.2 million into two groups--"highly involved" Jews and "people of Jewish background"-- and posed most questions only to the first group. As a result, most findings about belief and observance refer only to a subgroup of American Jews, making comparisons to the past impossible.
We can't afford to wait a decade before these figures are revised. The false population decline must be corrected before it further sours communal discourse. The United Jewish Communities owes it to itself and its public to step forward and state plainly what it knows to be true: American Jews are not disappearing.

1小题>

According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true about the National Jewish Population Survey?

A It found a decline of 300,000 Jews in ten years.

B It was carried out by United Jewish Communities.

C This is the first time United Jewish Communities has made mistakes in the population survey.

D The reported decline is not reliabl

2小题>

How does the population survey get it wrong in 2000?

A The population total in 2000 was reached by different method from that in 1990.

B There might be some problems with the judgment calls by the researchers.

C United Jewish Communities offered not enough financial support to the survey.

D It is the result of the rash of headlines leaving the impression that the population has decline

3小题>

Rabbis and moralists consider the Jewish population decline as the result of ______.

A Jewish negligence of their religious belief

B Jewish incompetence in America

C Jewish self-esteem

D the combination of all the three above

4小题>

It can be inferred from the passage that

A United Jewish Communities is sponsored by a single company

B population surveys by United Jewish Communities are important in shaping community policy of the Jewish in America

C the researchers did their job with nigh responsibility

D American Jewish reject full integration into society

5小题>

When the author is talking about the Jewish Population Survey, he seems ______.

A to believe the shrinking of the Jews in America

B to support the rejection of full integration into society

C to blame United Jewish Communities

D to be willing to tolerate the fault of United Jewish Communities

第 6 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):

It is difficult for an agency as old as J. Walter Thompson, which will mm 140 next year, to record some firsts at so venerable an age. But it will do just that with a rare changing of the guard. Thompson, which works for blue-chip advertisers like Diageo, Ford Motor, Kellogg, Merrill Lynch, Nestl6, Pfizer and Reckitt Benckiser, will announce today that Bob Jeffrey, president for its North American operations, will be promoted to chief executive, effective Jan. 1.
Mr. Jeffrey, in being named the ninth chief executive of Thompson since 1864, succeeds Peter A. Schweitzer, who will become chairman, a post that is now vacant. Mr. Schweitzer, 64, will also relinquish his duties as worldwide president to Michael Madel, now president for the Thompson operations in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Mr. Jeffrey, 50, will become the first Thompson chief executive to have spent most of his advertising career outside the agency. He joined Thompson five years ago as president of the flagship New York office; he came from the agency now known as Lowe & Partners Worldwide, part of the Interpublic Group of Companies, where he had been executive vice president and managing director for the San Francisco office. Mr. Jeffrey, who was also a founder of the Goldsmith/Jeffrey agency in New York, was promoted to his current post in 2001.
Mr. Madel, 53, will be the first Thompson worldwide president to be based outside New York, in this case London. Mr. Madel, who joined Thompson in 1990, adds responsibilities for the Asian-Pacific operations to the duties of his current post, to which he was promoted in 1997.
The changes come as Thompson, the largest agency in the United States in revenue--and No. 4 globally, behind Dentsu, McCann-Erickson Worldwide Advertising and BBDO Worldwide---confronts some daunting challenges.
While Thompson has recently gained additional assignments from clients like Pfizer, the agency has also lost some accounts from prominent marketers including the Miller Brewing Company division of SAB-Miller and Sun Microsystems. Thompson has had to shake up the ranks of senior managers at offices in cities like Chicago, Detroit and San Francisco to help reassure clients.
The agency stumbled in efforts to develop an entertainment marketing division, dismantling a unit based in New York named Content @JWT in favor of handling those tasks out of the Detroit office. And Thompson, like many large agencies, is deemed in need of improving its creative output, particularly as clients must deal with rapidly changing marketing and media trend.
The challenges include the rise of the finicky youthful consumer cohort known as Generation Y and the need to develop alternatives to traditional ad forms as consumers zip, zap and fast-forward television commercials. One task facing Mr. Jeffrey is to take the J. Walter Thompson creative product to an even higher level. Another is to ensure that communications solutions for clients are coordinated across all disciplines as effective as possible. This referred to the Thompson offerings in areas as disparate as advertising, entertainment marketing, interactive marketing, direct marketing and health care advertising. Mr. Jeffrey, in a separate interview, acknowledged the scale and scope of what he would face.
"If you watch the movie Catch Me if You Can set in the 1960's, you see the prominent brands are Pan Am and T.W.A.," Mr. Jeffrey said. "Forty years later, look at the airline industry. If you look at the ad industry, you could prognosticate something similar," he added. "If we don't get our acts together, that could be us.\

1小题>

It can be inferred from the passage that the advertisers that I. Walter Thompson works for are ______.

A of the highest quality

B as old asJ. Walter Thompson

C advertisers of stock markets

D advertisers of electric products

2小题>

According to the passage, the following statements are true EXCEPT ______.

A Bob Jeffrey will be chief executive of Thompson next year

B Bob Jeffrey is president for the North American operations of Thompson

C Thompson was founded in 1864

D Michael Madel now works in New York

3小题>

Who is the present worldwide president of Thompson?

A Bob Jeffrey.

B Peter A. Schweitzer.

C Michael Madel.

D The post now is vacant.

4小题>

It can be inferred from the passage that Bob Jeffrey ______.

A has spent most of his advertising career inJ. Walter Thompson

B became president for North American operations of Thompson five years ago

C is facing serious challenges m promote Thompson's business to a higher level

D will be conservative in his future measures to satisfy such youngsters as Generation Y

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The following measures should be taken by Thompson EXCEPT ______.

A to change the senior managers at offices in cities like Chicago, Detroit and San Francisco

B its clients must deal with rapidly changing marketing and media trend

C to coordinate communications solutions for clients across all disciplines as effective as possible

D to become the largest agency in the world in revenue

第 7 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):

Teenagers are under a lot of pressure to be thin. They are led to believe that the only way they can be accepted and fit in, is if they are thin. They resort to starving, vomiting and eating only diet foods to try and be thin. Television is a big influence on them. They watch shows like Beverly Hills 90210 and Melrose Place and feel they need to look as thin as the actresses on these shows. Society is brainwashing young people into believing that being thin is important and necessary.
Diet commercials are constantly appearing on our television screens telling us that once we lose the weight, we will be happy. While your standing in the check out line at the gocery store you are surrounded by magazines claiming to have the newest and best diet. Each month another new diet appears claiming to be the diet to end all diets. Whatever happened to last month's diets that claimed the same thing? Dieting has become an obsession in North America. We spend billions of dollars each year trying to look the way society tells us we need to look. If diets really worked, then why are there so many of them? The mason a new diet pops up each month, is because last's month's diets did not work. You know, the ones that claimed to really work. The truth of the matter is that DIETS DON'T WORK.
The diet and fashion industries are not totally to blame for society's obsession with thinness. We are the ones keeping them in business. We buy into the idea that we can attain the "ideal" body image. We allow ourselves to believe the lies being thrown at us constantly. We buy their magazines, diet books and products, hoping that this time they will work. We are throwing away our hard earned money trying to live up to the standards that society has set for us.
It's unfortunate, but in today's society, people have forgotten that it's what's inside a person that counts, not what's on the outside. We need to start loving and accepting each other for who we are, not what we look like. Next time you decide that you are going to start another diet because you feel you are too fat, stop, sign up for a self-esteem class instead. That would be money well spent. If we learn to love and accept ourselves, we will also begin to love our bodies, no matter what size we are.
Once again, I would like to stress the fact that diets don't work. Eating three healthy meals a day, a few snacks and doing moderate exercise, will allow your body to go to it's natural set point. It's important to remember that no food will make you fat, as long as it's eaten in moderation. Stop buying those fashion magazines and diet products, and stop believing all the lies being told to you by the fashion and diet industries. Instead, focus on learning to love and accept yourself. No number on a scale and fitting into a smaller dress size will not make you happy. Happiness can only come from within.

1小题>

What are Beverly Hills 90210 and Melrose Place?

A Fashion shows.

B Two famous places in America.

C Popular TV shows.

D Two TV channels.

2小题>

According to the author, which of the following statements is NOT true?

A Our society is flooded with diet commercials.

B The latest diet is necessarily better than all the previous ones.

C People in North America become crazy over Dieting.

D All diets are useless in fact.

3小题>

We can infer from this passage that ______.

A if your diet doesn't work the only thing you can do is accept your body image

B attending a self-esteem class will help you keep fit

C we shouldn't pay attention to the size of our body

D what's inside a person is much more important than his/her appearance

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What's the function of the last paragraph in the whole text?

A Persuasion.

B Summarization.

C Argumentation.

D Coherin

5小题>

The content of the passage can be best described as ______.

A narrative

B argumentative

C descriptive

D expository

第 8 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):

Summer is winding down, but it's still not too late to put the top down and hit the road. For those of us who can't spring for a Corvette or a BMW, here's some good news: Two of the coolest convertibles on the road are also more affordable --Volkswagen's New Beetle and Chrysler's PT Cruiser.
Both start at about $20,000, seat four, and get between 22 and 24 miles per gallon from their four-cylinder engines. Each has fully insulated cloth tops with rear windows made of real glass, which makes them comfortable to use in winter. Front-wheel drive helps make them safer to drive over snow and ice. Both also offer high-performance turbocharged models starting at about $25,000. Both have bulging fenders and cool, retro personalities.
Beyond that, they're very different. The PT Cruiser focuses on practicality, while the Beetle is more fun to drive.
That fun comes from the car's chassis, suspension, and overall structure. Crank the steering into a turn and the car follows like an eager puppy. The engine isn't powerful, but loves to rev, so you can downshift to accelerate.
The New Beetle Convertible has developed an unfortunate reputation as a "chick car" for its cute looks and the lack of power in the standard model. But for an extra $1,600, VW offers its turbocharged version, with a 150 horsepower, 1.8 liter engine, which gives the car some snap.
Even so, the convertible top eliminates what little practicality the New Beetle hatchback offers. To fit the folding top, the back seat was narrowed and angled so upright it's uncomfortable. And the folded top sits above a tiny trunk, with only five cubic feet of capacity and accessible through a smaller porthole.
Weekend trippers had better not have kids -- or plan to rough it with more than a backpack or two. Interior storage is also minuscule. As with the New Beetle hatchback, the windshield is disconcertingly far away, and the wipers clear only a small slit of a view in front. Compared with the profile of the hatchback, however, the convertible sports a top that's lower and a little less cartoonlike.
The PT Cruiser, on the other hand, looks its sinister best with the top up. Peeling the top off reveals its cutesy "roll hoop". (Chrysler denies the hoop offers rollover protection and calls it a light bar.) But the Cruiser, like its four-door brethren, offers all the year-round practicality the original Beetle convertible did in its day. The back seat is comfortable for two people, and the trunk is roomy.
Unfortunately, it's also hard to access because the big trunk lid gets in the way when open. So instead of standing to load or unload the car, you have to squat or kneel. But the storage space is huge -- the biggest I've seen in any convertible. And the back seats fold forward in case you need to carry some long cargo. The interior offers four cup holders and several large storage bins.
The 220-horsepower turbocharged engine in the GT model makes the Cruiser seriously quick, which backs up its hot-rod looks. But after that, the driving experience falls apart. Like its hot-rod inspirations, the Cruiser is best on a straight, smooth road. Over bumps, its floppy chassis wobbles like jello. On the highway, the Cruiser I tested needed continual corrections to stay in its lane. The manual shifter on the GT proved sloppy; it was hard to be sure which gear the car was about to engage. Several times I hit fifth gear when aiming for third, Chrysler apparently anticipated this problem, as a brief warning chimes to let you know when you're in reverse.
Neither the PT Cruiser convertible nor the New Beetle is perfect. But for fun in the sun or even the fall-- what could be better? Both cars brought constant waves, smiles, and stories from passersby.
What's a convertible about if it isn't looking good on the road and brightening your day?

1小题>

Those who choose Volkswagen's New Beetle or Chrysler's PT Cruiser are mainly interested hi their ______.

A practicality

B fun to drive

C prices

D style

2小题>

Which of the following statements is right?

A The New Beetle Convertible and the New Beetle hatchback are practically of the same model.

B More fun to drive means more horsepower.

C The New Beetle Convertible leaves people with the impression that it's only a car made for a lady.

D The New Beetle Convertible was uncomfortable to use in winter.

3小题>

Which of the following is NOT among the shortcomings of Volkswagen's New Beetle named by the author?

A Its reputation as a "chick car".

B Its folded top sits above a tiny trunk, with only five cubic feet of capacity and accessible through a smaller porthole.

C Crank the steering into a turn and the car follows like an eager puppy.

D As with the New Beetle hatchback, the windshield is far away, and the wipers clear only a small slit of a view in front.

4小题>

The PT Cruiser excels the New Beetle Convertible with all the following qualities EXCEPT that ______.

A its cutesy look

B the back seat is comfortable for two people, and the trunk is roomy

C the back seats fold forward in case you need to carry some long cargo

D the 220-horsepower turbocharged engine in the GT model makes the Cruiser seriously quick, which backs up its hot-rod looks. But after that, the driving experience falls apart

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"It was hard to be sure which gear the car was about to engage. Several times I hit fifth gear when aiming for third. Chrysler apparently anticipated this problem, as a brief warning chimes to let you know when you're in reverse." In the last 3rd paragraph, this means that ______.

A the design of the car deserves applauding

B the designer really cares about the drivers' practical needs

C this problem of the PT Cruiser is quite noteworthy

D none of the above

第 9 题:单选题:

The Pilgrims came to America in a ship named the ______.

A. Half Moon

B. Speedwell

C. Mayflower

D. Santa Maria

第 10 题:单选题:

The Yellow Pages is a classified commercial ______ that lists subscribers according to their trade or business.

A. registration book

B. telephone directory

C. itinerary map

D. flight route

第 11 题:单选题:

A person in Shanghai can describe what may happen in Spain; similarly, a 21st century person can talk about events in ancient times. This demonstrates that language possesses the design feature of ______.

A. productivity

B. duality

C. cultural transmission

D. displacement

第 12 题:单选题:

______ is the study of language in relation to the mind.

A. Psycholinguistics

B. Sociolinguistics

C. Linguistics

D. Semantics

第 13 题:单选题:

______ was the most popular American poet of this century. At the age of 87, he was invited to read a poem at the inauguration of President Kennedy.

A. Ezra Pound

B. Robert Frost

C.E.E. Cummings

D. Carl Sandburg

第 14 题:单选题:

It is taken as a great contribution made by ______ that languages in the world are classified into different language families according to their genetic relations.

A. modem linguists

B. traditional grammarians

C. sociolinguists

D. historical linguists

第 15 题:单选题:

In the 19th century, in England, there appeared a literary trend ______.

A. Romanticism

B. Sentimentalism

C. Critical Realism

D. Realism

第 16 题:单选题:

The Louisiana territory of America was purchased from ______.

A. Spain

B. England

C. France

D. Russia

第 17 题:单选题:

H. G. Wells is one of the most famous writers of ______ fiction.

A. romantic

B. realistic

C. classical

D. science

第 18 题:单选题:

In Canada, French and English are coequal official language except in ______, where French is the sole official language.

A. Quebec

B. Montreal

C. Vancouver

D. Ottawa

第 19 题:Proofreading and Error Correction:

When I was about 11, I inherited my older brother's paper route. It was a good job,
though it means waking up at the crack of dawn and hopping on my bike in Rockford, to (1) ______.
deliver papers. Punctuality was critic. People expected the paper on their front porch by 6 (2) ______.
a.m. If I ran late, they would be standing in their doorways and I would infinitely hear about (3) ______.
it. On the other hand, doing the job professionally often resulted in much-appreciated tips.
Ever since then, I have tried to do as professional a job as possible -- whether it be (4) ______.
bagging groceries, painting houses or tarring roofs. Acting is not different. I believe if you
work hard and behave like a pro, it will pay back, and you will be offered more and better (5) ______.
roles. This means giving your all. If a scene requires another character to react to jumping (6) ______.
into the water, I will jump in as many times as it takes to help him and the director get the
shot. Several years ago, while filmed a movie in the mountains of Brazil, my fellow actors (7) ______.
and i all pitched in to help the screw move heavy equipment through rugged jungle. Acting (8) ______.
is a job like any other, and you can't let it go to your head. The thing that made a difference (9) ______.
delivering papers -- being thorough, punctual, doing your best -- also count on the
movie set. And I still have to be woken up at the crack of dawn. (10) ______.

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第 20 题:填空题:

不可否认的是,在城市飞速发展的今天.人们的城市生活也越来越面临一系列挑战:高密度的城市生活模式不免引发空间冲突、文化摩擦、资源短缺和环境污染。如果不加控制,城市的无序扩展会加剧这些问题,最终侵蚀城市的活力、影响城市生活的质量。
联合国人居组织1996年发布的《伊斯坦布尔宣言》强调:“我们的城市必须成为人类能够过上有尊严、健康、安全、幸福和充满希望的美满生活的地方”。而城市面临的种种挑战的发端,不论是拥挤、污染、犯罪还是冲突,根源都在于城市化进程中人与自然、人与人、精神与物质之间各种关系的失谐,长期的失谐,必然导致城市生活质量的倒退乃至文明的倒退。
为此,2010年上海世博会将以“和谐城市”的理念来回应对“城市,让生活更美好”的诉求。

 

第 21 题:填空题:

I used to find notes left in the collection basket, beautiful notes about my homilies and about the writer's thoughts on the daily scriptural readings. The person who penned the notes would add reflections to my thoughts and would always include some quotes from poets and mystics he or she had read and remembered and loved. The notes fascinated me. Here was someone immersed in a search for truth and beauty. Words had been treasured, words that were beautiful. And I felt as if the words somehow delighted in being discovered, for they were obviously very generous to the as yet anonymous writer of the notes. And now this person was in turn learning the secret of sharing them. Beauty so shines when given away. The only truth that exists is, in that sense, free.

第 22 题:填空题:

There is no denying that waste is a common phenomenon on campus nowadays. As a developing country and a nation with so long a history, our young people should realize the serious realities of our natural materials and economical resources. You are to write a 400-word composition to discuss this issue.
In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your essay on the ANSWER SHEET.

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