People usually communicate by spoken and written language, yet they can also communicate without words and this kind of communication often is more important than getting the content of the message across. Body language falls into this category of communication.Ⅰ. Need for body language
1) When connecting with a person, we have to make it clear how the content of a spoken message needs to be (1) ______.
And how we do this tells something about (2) ______ between people.
2) Often (3) ______ are inadequate for this purpose, and therefore we use body language.
-- e. g. looking someone in the eyes means something different than not looking someone
in the eyes
Ⅱ. Functions and features of body language
1) Body language decides to a large extent (4) ______ of our communication, and therefore we should
-- learn to use our body language for a purpose
-- learn to understand and explain body language of others
2) How we can explain body language depends on
-- relationship we have with the person
-- (5) ______ of the other
3) Body language is interlinked with
-- spoken language
-- a whole pattern of (6) ______ from a person
4) Body language signs can (7) ______each other to
-- make a meaning clear
-- strengthen the meaning of what we communicate
5) Some groups have developed a whole specific body language which can be very explicit in its meaning and is used to communicate where the use of words may be difficult or dangerous.
Ⅲ. Specific use of body language
1) Body language is used especially to express feelings.
--People may give out double messages: one message in words and (8) ______ message in body language.
-- Most people believe more steadily their impression of how a person acts through body language than what is said through words.
-- People tend to (9) ______ the spoken words if they do not correspond with the body language.
2) How we come across to someone is decided only for a small part by the words we speak but for a large part by our body language.
--To leave a good impression, it is important for us to know and control our body language.
-- The person on the receiving end of our body language will have a feeling or impression difficult to describe, which is called (10) ______.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about professor Kimball's survey?
A Some people don't want to take it because it's too time-consuming.
B The results might not be objective enough.
C The survey aims to measure Americans' happiness.
D The survey has been conducted for three months.
Which of the following statements about happiness is NOT true according to professor Kimball?
A Happiness means good luck in many languages.
B Happiness as a kind of feeling is something like having a good life.
C People's feeling of happiness goes back to normal, quickly.
D The English word "happenstance" is about luck that happens by chance.
Professor Kimball thinks the strong dip in people's happiness after the earthquake in Pakistan ______.
A shows that people all over the world care about Pakistan
B demonstrates earthquake's great influence
C doesn't make any sense because the survey results aren't justified
D makes sense because everyone cares about other human beings
What's professor Kimball's attitude towards Richard Laird and his book on happiness?
"Hedonic adaptation" means that ______.
A life is influenced by people's feeling of happiness
B people's feeling of happiness usually dips after news events
C the happiness goes back to normal after a while
D the happiness depends on how well one's life is going
Why did British force strike the police building in Basra?
A Because some civil prisoners were planning to break the prison.
B Because they found a major Iraqi criminal in the building.
C Because they heard there would be planned executions.
D Because they heard there would be an attack.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A The Iraqi army supported the crime unit.
B British force killed no one.
C Engineers demolished the building during the attack.
D The police unit has been accused of committing many crimes.
Suddenly Lady Windermere looked eagerly round the room, and said, in her clear contralto voice, "Where is my chiromantist?"
"Your what, Gladys?" exclaimed the Duchess, trying to remember what a chiromantist really was, and hoping it was not the same as a chiropodist.
"My chiromantist, Duchess: I can't live without him at present. I must certainly introduce him to you."
"Introduce him!" cried the Duchess. "You don't mean to say he is here?" She began looking about for a small tortoiseshell fan and a very tattered lace shawl so as to be ready to go at a moment's notice.
"Of course he is here: I would not dream of giving a party without him. He tells me I have a pure psychic hand."
"Oh, I see!" said the Duchess, feeling very much relieved. "He tells fortunes, I suppose?"
"And misfortunes, too," answered Lady Windermere. "Any amount of them. Next year, for instance, I am in great danger, both by land and sea, so I am going to live in a balloon, and draw up my dinner in a basket every evening. It is all written down on my little finger, or on the palm of my hand. I forgot which." "But surely that is tempting Providence, Gladys." "My dear Duchess, surely Providence can resist temptation by this time. Everyone should have their hands told once a month, so as to know what not to do. Of course, one does it all the same, but it is so pleasant to be warned. Ah, here is Mr. Podgers! Now, Mr. Podgers, I want you to tell the Duchess of Paisley's hand."
"Dear Gladys, I really don't think it is quite right," said the Duchess, feebly unbuttoning a rather soiled kid glove.
"Nothing interesting ever is," said Lady Windmere. "But I must introduce you. Duchess, this is Mr. Podgers, my pet chiromantist. Mr. Podgers, this is the Duchess of Paisley, and if you say that she has a larger mountain of the moon than I have, I will never believe you again."
"I am sure, Gladys, there is nothing of the kind in my hand," said the Duchess gravely.
"Your grace is quite right," said Mr. Podgers, glancing at the little fat hand.
"The mountain of the moon is not developed. The line of life, however, is excellent. You will live to a great age, Duchess, and be extremely happy. Ambition -- very moderate, line of intellect not exaggerated, line of heart..."
"Now, do be indiscreet, Mr. Podgers," cried Lady Windermere.
"Nothing would give me greater pleasure," said Mr. Podgers, bowing, "if the Duchess ever had been, but I am, sorry to say that I see great permanence of affection, combined with a strong sense of duty."
"Pray go on, Mr. Podgers," said the Duchess, looking quite pleased.
"Economy is not the least of your Grace's virtues," continued Mr. Podgers, and lady Windermere went off into fits of laughter.
"Economy is a very good thing," remarked the Duchess complacently. "When I married Paisley he had eleven castles, and not a single house fit to live in."
"And now he has twelve houses, and not a single castle," cried Lady Windmere. "You have told the Duchess's character admirably, Mr. Podgers, and now you must tell Lady Flora's." In answer to a nod, a tall gift stepped awkwardly from behind the sofa and held out a long, bony hand.
"Ah, a pianist!" said Mr. Podgers. "Very reserved, very honest, and with a great love of animals."
"Quite true!" exclaimed the Duchess, turning to Lady Windermere. "Flora keeps two dozen collie dogs at Macloskie, and would turn our town house into a menagerie if her father would let her."
"Well, that is just what I do with my house every Thursday evening," cried Lady Windermere, laughing. "Only I like lions better than collie dogs. But Mr. Podgers must read some more hands for us. Come, Lady Marvel, show him yours."
But Lady Marvel entirely declined to have her past or her future exposed. In fact, many people seemed afraid to face the odd little man with his stereotyped smile and his bright, beady eyes; and when he told poor Lady Fermor right out before everyone that she did not care a bit for music, but was extremely fond of musicians, it was generally felt that chiromancy was a most dangerous science, and one ought not to be encouraged, except in private.
The Duchess wants to "be ready to go at a moment's notice" (Paragraph 4 ) because she ______.
A is sick of Lady Windermere
B is afraid of chiropodists
C does not want to meet Mr. Podgers
D considers having her fortune told as tempting Providence
Why does the passage suggest that the Duchess wears a tattered shawl and soiled gloves?
A To show that she doesn't have enough money to buy nicer ones.
B To show that she doesn't care about appearance.
C To show that she has weird preferences.
D To show that she is very provident.
What does Lady Windermere's plan to live in a balloon indicate?
A Her subjective attitude toward fortune telling.
B Her desire to impress the Duchess.
C Her inability to separate reality from fantasy.
D Her respect for the accuracy of Mr. Podger's fortune-telling.
Which of the following best describes Mr. Podgers' personality?
The Duchess looks "quite pleased" because ______.
A Mr. Podgers has suggested her chance of becoming better-off in the near future
B Mr. Podgers has described her characteristics in a positive way
C she can live a long life according to fortune telling
D her future is brighter than Lady Windermere's
Which of the following CANNOT Mr. Podgers do?
A Tell people's fortunes.
B Expose people's future.
C Describe people's character traits.
D Unravel people's unspoken plans.
"When I direct Shakespeare," theatrical innovator Peter Sellars once said, "the first thing I do is go to the text for cuts. I go through to find the passages that are really heavy, that really are not needed, places where the language has become obscure, places where there is a bizarre detour. And then I take those moments, those elements, and I make them the centerpiece, the core of the production."
In the sober matter of staging Shakespeare, such audaciousness is hard to resist -- though a lot of Chicago theatre-goers have been able to. Typically, a third of the people who have been showing up at the Goodman Theatre to see Sellars' ingenious reworking of The Merchant of Venice have been walking out before the evening is over. It's no mystery. Why? The evening isn't over for nearly four hours. Beyond that, the production pretty much upends everything the audience has come to expect from one of Shakespeare's most troubling but reliable entertaining comedies.
The play has been transplanted from the teeming, multicultural world of 15th century Venice, Italy, to the teeming, multicultural world of 1994 Venice Beach, California, where Sellars lives when he isn't setting Don Giovanm in Spanish Harlem, putting- King Lear in a Lincoln Continental or deconstructing other classic plays and operas. Shylock, along with the play's other Jews, is black. Antonio, the merchant of the title, and his kinsmen are Latinos. Portia, the wealthy maiden being wooed by Antonio's friend Bassanio, is Asian. But the racial shuffling is just one of Sellars' liberties. The stage is furnished with little but office furniture, while video screens simulcast the actors in close-up during their monologues, (and, in between, display seemingly unrelated Southern California scene, from gardens and swimming pools to the L. A. riots). Cries of anguish come from the clowns, and the playfully romantic final scene, in which Portia teases Bassanio for giving away her ring to the lawyer she played in disguise, is re-imagined as the darkest, most poisonously unsettling passage in the play.
Some of this seems to be sheer perversity, but the real shock of Sellars' production is how well it works both theatrically and thematically. The racial casting, for instance, is a brilliant way of defusing the play's anti-Semitism -- turning it into a metaphor for prejudice and materialism in all its forms. Paul Butler is a hardhearted ghetto businessman who, even when he is humiliated at the end, never loses his cool or stoops for pity.
Wrongheaded and tortuous as this Merchant sometimes is, the updating is witty and apt. The "news of the Rialto" becomes fodder for a pair of gossip reporters on a happy-talk TV newscast. Shylock's trial is presided over by a mumbling, superannuated judge who could have stepped fight out of Court TV. With a few exceptions -- Elaine Tse's overwrought Portia, for instance -- the actors strike a nice balance between Shakespeare's poetry and Sellars' stunt driving. For the rest of us, it's a wild ride.
What's the main topic of the passage?
A The Merchant of Venice adapted by Senars.
B Success of the newly performed Merchant of Venice.
C Peter Sellars's artistic style.
D The shooting of Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice.
When directing Shakespeare, Sellars usually ______ the original texts.
A selects the key moments in
C completely changes
What can be inferred about Sellars's The Merchant of Venice?
A The adaptation is awkward and meaningless.
B It is popular with Chicago theater-goers.
C It is not favored by the audience.
D It meets the audience's expectation.
It can be concluded from the passage that Shakespeare's original text of The Merchant of Venice ______.
A is much more difficult to understand
B is always clear in language
C presents a negative viewpoint towards the Semitics
D is not as popular as his tragedies
The phrase "wrongheaded and tortuous" in the last paragraph means ______.
B not logical
Having said all of this, I should, perhaps, locate myself. I teach and write about a loose and baggy territory called Las Americas, the Americas, and most often about the part of that category referred to as Latin America. This latter space includes nations, of course, but the demarcation is far more flexible because of its plural referent. The writers who inhabit this territory possess dual citizenship, for they are self-avowed "Latin American" writers at the same time that they are also Mexican, Argentine, Peruvian, or Cuban. In fact, they are often engaged deeply in describing their own national cultures and are far from ready to throw out the baby with the globalizing bathwater.
Mexico is a particularly interesting case of the use of nation as a defense against the leveling pressures of' globalization -- a nationalism of resistance, in Wallerstein's terms, rather than a nationalism of domination. For example, the much debated NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement -- or the TLC, Tratado de Libre Comercio -- opened Mexico's borders to American commercial onslaughts in the early 1990s, but in cultural matters, the treaty encodes a very different attitude. The Free Trade Agreement contains an Annex that provides special protection to Mexico's cultural industries. Some of its provisions are as follows: 1) the use of the Spanish language is required for the broadcast, cable or multipoint distribution system of radio and television, except when the Secretaria de Gobemacion authorizes the use of another language; 2) a majority of the time of each day's live broadcast programs must feature Mexican nationals; 3) the use of die Spanish language or Spanish subtitles is required for advertising that is broadcast or otherwise distributed in the territory of Mexico; and 4o) thirty percent of screen time of every theater, assessed on an annual basis, may be reserved for films produced by Mexican persons either within or outside the territory of Mexico. I should also like to mention that it was Canada that insisted on cultural industry protection clauses in the North American Free Trade Agreement originally and the Canadian government achieved partial success, at best. In comparison, protections of cultural industries are common throughout the European Union: France passed recently legislation requiring that French radio stations devote forty percent of airtime to French music, and Spain also passed a law requiring that one-fourth to one-third of all movies shown in Spanish theaters to be of Spanish origin. England has long protected its movie industry: the great film director Michael Powell got his start, as did other British directors during the 1930s, making what were called quota quickies. So, even as I suggest that comparatists may want to review our nationalist institutional and disciplinary structures in the light of global mobility, nations continue to protect their cultures against those same forces.
The phrase "plural referent" in line 4 refers to ______.
A the cultures
B the Latin Americas
C the writers
D the nations
Which of the following statements about Mexico is TRUE?
A It has an inclination for globalization.
B It rejects economic globalization.
C It protects national culture.
D It has great cultural diversity.
What do comparatists want to do according to the author?
A To help protect national culture under global mobility.
B To help Latin American nations fight against cultural globalization.
C To study nationalists movements under the circumstance of globalization.
D To help strengthen the forces of globalization.
Imagine a chart that begins when man first appeared on the planet and tracks the economic growth of societies from then forward. It would be a long, flat line until the late 16th or early 17th century, when it would start trending upward. Before then the fruits of productive labor were limited to a few elites -- princes, merchants and priests. For most of humankind life was as the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes famously described it in 1651 -- "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short". But as Hobbes was writing those words, the world around him was changing. Put simply, human beings were getting smarter.
People have always sought knowledge, of course, but in Western Europe at that time, men like Galileo, Newton and Descartes began to search systematically for ways to understand and control their environment. The scientific revolution, followed by the Enlightenment, marked a fundamental shift. Humans were no longer searching for ways simply to fit into a natural or divine order, but they were seeking to change it. Once people found ways to harness energy -- using steam engines -- they were able to build machines that harnessed far more power than any human or horse could ever do. And people could work without ever getting tired. The rise of these machines drove the Industrial Revolution, and created a whole new system of life. Today the search for knowledge continues to produce an ongoing revolution in the health and wealth of humankind.
If the rise of science marks the first great trend in this story, the second is its diffusion. What was happening in Britain during the Industrial Revolution was not an isolated phenomenon. A succession of visitors to Britain would go back to report to their countries on the technological and commercial innovations they saw them. Sometimes societies were able to learn extremely fast, as in the United States. Others, like Germany, was benefited from starting late, leapfrogging the long-drawn-out process that Britain went through.
This diffusion of knowledge accelerated dramatically in recent decades. Over the last 30 years we have watched countries like Japan, Singapore, South Korea and now China grow at a pace that is three times that of Britain or the United States at the peak of the Industrial Revolution. They have been able to do this because of their energies and exertions, of course, but also because they cleverly and perhaps luckily adopted certain ideas about development that had worked in the West -- reasonably free markets, open trade, a focus on science and technology, among them.
The diffusion of knowledge is the dominant trend of our time and goes well beyond the purely scientific. Consider the cases of Turkey and Brazil. if you had asked an economist 20 years ago how to think about these two countries, he would have explained that they were classic basket-case, Third World economies, with triple-digit inflation, soaring debt burdens, a weak private sector and snail's-pace growth. Today they are both remarkably well managed, with inflation in single digits and growth above 5 percent. And this shift is happening around the world. From Thailand to South Africa to Slovakia to Mexico, countries are far better managed economically than they have ever been. Even in cases where political constraints make it difficult to push far-reaching reforms, as in Brazil, Mexico or India, governments still manage their affairs sensibly, observing the Hippocratic oath not to do any harm.
We are sometimes reluctant to believe in progress. But the evidence is unmistakable. The management of major economies has gotten markedly better in the last few years. Careful monetary policy has tempered the boom-and-bust economic cycles of the industrial world, producing milder recessions and fewer shocks. Every day one reads of a new study comparing nations in everything from Internet penetration to inflation. All these studies and lists are symbols of a learning process that is accelerating, reinforcing the lessons of success and failure. Call it a best-practice world.
I realize that the world I am describing is the world of the winners. There are billions of people, locked outside global markets, whose lives are still accurately described by Hobbes's cruel phrase. But even here, there is change. The recognition of global inequalities is more marked today than ever before, and this learning is forcing action. There is more money being spent on vaccines and cures for diseases in Africa and Asia today than ever before in history. Foreign-aid programs face constant scrutiny and analysis. When things don't work, we learn that, too, and it puts a focus either on the aid program or on local governments to improve.
This may sound overly optimistic. There are losers in every race, but let not the worries over who is winning and losing the knowledge race obscure the more powerful underlying dynamic: knowledge is liberating. It creates the possibility for change and improvement everywhere. It can create amazing devices and techniques, save lives, improve living standards and spread information. Some will do well on one measure, others on another. But on the whole, a knowledge-based world will be a healthier and richer world.
The caveat I would make is not about one or another country's paucity of engineers or computers. These problems can be solved. But knowledge is not the same thing as wisdom. Knowledge can produce equally powerful ways to destroy life, intentionally and unintentionally. It can produce hate and seek destruction. Knowledge does not by itself bring any answer to the ancient Greek question "What is a Good Life?" It does not produce good sense, courage, generosity and tolerance. And most crucially, it does not produce the farsightedness that will allow us all to live together -- and grow together -- on this world without causing war, chaos and catastrophe. For that we need wisdom.
It can be inferred that during the Enlightenment, people in Western Europe ______.
A were looking for better ways of seeking knowledge
B were not satisfied with their past achievements
C were trying to fit into the natural environment
D were tired of working
Which of the following is NOT a result of scientific diffusion?
A Britain's leadership in the Industrial Revolution.
B The Industrial Revolution in countries like the U. S. and Germany.
C Great development of some Southeast Asian countries.
D The economic boom in Turkey and Brazil.
According to the passage, Japan's success can be attributed to all EXCEPT ______.
A it's own effort
B ideas adopted from the west
C diffusion of science and technology
D successful foreign trade
The word "unmistakable" in paragraph 6 means ______.
A without mistakes
B not to be misunderstood
The author's attitude towards knowledge is ______.
A slightly skeptical
B optimistic but with certain cautiousness
C overly enthusiastic
D generally neutral
A suitable title for the passage would be ______.
A Knowledge and World Economy
B Diffusion of Science
C The Earth's Learning Curve
D Knowledge and Wisdom
______ is the effect of language in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is stated.
Among the following, ______ is NOT one of the functions of adult's language according to Halliday.
A the Ideational Function
B the Syntactic Function
C the Interpersonal Function
D the Textual Function
Theme and theme are terms in ______ of syntax.
A the Traditional Approach
B the Structural Approach
C the Functional Approach
D the Generative Approach
What is the highest mountain in Britain?
B Ben Nevis
C the Cotsworlds
D the Forth
Which of the following writers is a novelist of the 20th century?
A John Keats
B Charles Lamb
C Walter Scott
D James Joyce
Francis Scott Fitzgerald was famous for ______.
A The Great Gatsby
B The Sound and the Fury
C A Farewell to Arms
D The Grapes of Wrath
Quebec province in Canada has a strong ______ culture.
The American president involved in Watergate Scandal was ______.
A Richard Nixon
B George Bush
C Andrew Jackson
D Bill Clinton
The nation's capital city Washington D. C. and New York are located in ______.
A the American West
B the Great Plains
C the Midwest
D the Middle Atlantic States
Which of the following is a blending word?
Normally a student must attend a certain number of courses
in order to graduate, and each course which he attends and gives him a 1 ______.
credit which he may count towards a degree. In many American universities
the total work for a degree consists of thirty-six courses each lasts for 2 ______.
one semester. A typical course consists of three classes per week for fifteen
weeks; while attend a university, a student will probably attend four or 3 ______.
five courses during each semester. Normally a student would expect to
take four years attending two semesters each year. It is possible to spread
the period of work for the degree over a long period. It is also possible 4 ______.
for a student to move between one university and another during his degree
course, though this is not in fact done for a regular practice. 5 ______.
For every course that he follows a student is given a grade, which is
recorded, and the record is available for the student to show to prospective
employers. All this imposes a constant pressure and strain of work, and 6 ______.
in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student
affairs. Elections to positions in student organizations arise much enthusiasm. 7 ______.
The efficient work of maintaining discipline is usually performed by students 8 ______.
who advise the academic authorities. Any student who is thought to
have broken the rules, for example, by cheating, have to appear before 9 ______.
a student court. With the enormous numbers of students, the operation
of the system does involve a certain number of activity. A student 10 ______.
who has held one of these positions of authority is much respected and
it will be of benefit to him later in his career.
历史的道路，不全是坦平的，有时走到艰难险阻的境界。这是全靠雄健的精神才能够冲过去的。 一条浩浩荡荡的长江大河，有时流到很宽的境界，平原无际，一泻千里。有时流到很逼狭的境界，两岸丛山叠岭，绝壁断崖，江河流于其间，曲折回环，极其险峻。民族生命的进展，其经历亦复如是。 人类在历史上的生活正如旅行一样。旅途上的征人所经过的地方，有时是坦荡平原，有时是崎岖险路。老于旅途的人，走到平坦的地方，固是高高兴兴地向前走，走到崎岖的境界，越是奇趣横生，觉得在此奇绝壮观的境界，越能感到一种冒险的美趣。
"To be or not to be." Outside the Bible, these six words are the most famous in all the literature of the world. They were spoken by Hamlet when he was thinking aloud, and they are the most famous words in Shakespeare because Hamlet was speaking not only for himself but for every thinking man and woman. To be or not to be -- to live or not to live, to live richly and abundantly and eagerly, or to live dully and meanly and scarcely. A philosopher once wanted to know whether he was alive or not. which is a good question for everyone to put to himself occasionally. He answered it by saying: "I think, therefore I am." But the best definition of existence I ever saw was one written by another philosopher who said: "To be is to be in relations." If this is true. then the more relations a living thing has, the more it is alive. To live abundantly means simply to increase the range and intensity of our relations. Unfortunately we are so constituted that we get to love our routine. But apart from our regular occupation how much are we alive? If you are interested only in your regular occupation, you are alive only to that extent. So far as other things are concerned -- poetry and prose, music, pictures, sports, unselfish friendships, politics, international affairs -- you are dead.
In recent years, more and more advertisements have been flooding into our lives. Some advertisements exert negative effects on the youth. Therefore some people suggest that advertisements be banned. Do you agree or disagree with this? Write an essay of about 400 words to state your view on the following topic: Should Advertisements Be Banned? In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
The protest near Seoul was ______.
B in vain
D under control
The free trade talks will ______.
A achieve expected results
B last another 3 years
C resume in December
D come to an end next year