In the United States, charter schools provide alternatives to "regular" public schools. Unlike most public schools, charters don't usually have an enrollment boundary and can recruit students from a larger geographic area.Ⅰ. Features of charter schools
1) admission process
— no discrimination
— a random of method like (1)______
2) many different shapes
— to cater to specific regulations
— to offer a thematic or (2) ______ curriculum
to provide an alternative to regular public school
— more likely to be found in (3) ______ areas
— run by large and small companies, parents, teachers, community groups and nonprofit organizations
— most charter schools are new and (4) ______
6) academic results
— Charter schools don't necessarily produce better academic results than regular public schools.
Ⅱ. Funding of charter schools
1) mostly from the state, generally based on their (5)______
2) also from grants and additional donations for ambitious programs not fully funded y state/ district formulas
3) also a limited amount of (6) ______ to help start new charter schools
4) Funding for facilities can be (7) ______ for charter schools.
Ⅲ. Monitoring of charter schools
— entities that grant schools (8) ______, and monitor their performance
— including charter boards, school boards and (9)______
2) key masons schools close
— They can't recruit enough students.
— They can't find a stable space to operate.
— They can't manage (10)______
What did Mrs. Bruce's attitude towards suffragette movement use to be?
What did Mrs. Bruce think of the suffragettes' efforts?
A They were useless.
B They were ridiculous.
C They were good in a lot of ways.
D They were somewhat limited.
Which of the following statements about the suffragette movement is TRUE according to Mrs. Brace?
A There would be much difference without the movement.
B The movement should be more peaceful.
C The movement actually did nothing good.
D The movement brought something harmful in the long term.
Which of the following about marching in the suffragette movement days is NOT true?
A The marching was violent.
B Nobody interfered.
C There were a few boos.
D There were a lot of clapping.
What does Mrs. Bruce think about politics?
A She thinks women shouldn't enter politics.
B She thinks beating men at politics is great.
C She thinks women sometimes can be better at politics than men.
D She thinks politics is men's job.
Those miners had been protesting in Huanuni in Bolivia because they wanted to ______.
A have higher salaries
B work under better conditions
C keep independent mining jobs
D work for shorter hours
The protest was ______.
Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal. Smiling is apparently a universal sign of friendliness and approval. Baring the teeth in a hostile way, as noted by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, may be a universe sign of anger. As the originator of the theory of evolution, Darwin believed that the universal recognition of facial expressions would have survival value. For example, facial expressions could signal the approach of enemies (or friends) in the absence of language.
Most investigators concur that certain facial expressions suggest the same emotions in a people. Moreover, people in diverse cultures recognize the emotions manifested by the facial expressions. In classic research Paul Ekman took photographs of people exhibiting the emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness. He then asked people around the world to indicate what emotions were being depicted in them. Those queried ranged from European college students to members of the Fore, a tribe that dwells in the New Guinea highlands. All groups including the Fore, who had almost no contact with Western culture, agreed on the portrayed emotions. The Fore also displayed familiar facial expressions when asked how they would respond if they were the characters in stories that called for basic emotional responses. Ekman and his colleagues more recently obtained similar results in a study of ten cultures in which participants were permitted to report that multiple emotions were shown by facial expressions. The participants generally agreed on which two emotions were being shown and which emotion was more intense.
Psychological researchers generally recognize that facial expressions reflect emotional states. In fact, various emotional states give rise to certain patterns of electrical activity in the facial muscles and in the brain. The facial-feedback hypothesis argues, however, that the causal relationship between emotions and facial expressions can also work in the opposite direction. According to this hypothesis, signals from the facial muscles ("feedback") are sent back to emotion centers of the brain, and so a person's facial expression can influence that person's emotional state. Consider Darwin's words: "The free expression by outward signs of an emotion intensifies it. On the other hand, the repression, as far as possible, of all outward signs softens our emotions." Can smiling give rise to feelings of good will, for example, and frowning to anger?
Psychological research has given rise to some interesting findings concerning 'the facial-feedback hypothesis. Causing participants in experiments to smile, for example, leads them to report more positive feelings and to rate cartoons (humorous drawings of people or situations) as being more humorous. When they are caused to frown, they rate cartoons as being more aggressive.
What are the possible links between facial expressions and emotion? One link is arousal, which is the level of activity or preparedness for activity in an organism. Intense contraction of facial muscles, such as those used in signifying fear, heightens arousal. Self-perception of heightened arousal then leads to heightened emotional activity. Other links may involve changes in brain temperature and the release of neurotransmitters (substances that transmit nerve impulses). The contraction of facial muscles both influences the internal emotional state and reflects it. Ekman has found that the so-called Duchenne smile, which is characterized by "crow's feet" — wrinkles around the eyes and a subtle drop in the eye cover fold so that the skin above the eye moves down slightly toward the eyeball, can lead to pleasant feelings.
Ekman's observation may be relevant to the British expression "keep a stiff upper lip" as a recommendation for handling stress. It might be that a "stiff" lip suppresses emotional response — as long as the lip is not quivering with fear or tension. But when the emotion that leads to stiffening the lip is more intense, and involves strong muscle tension, facial feedback may heighten emotional response.
The word "despondent" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to______.
Which of the following statements would NOT Darwin agree with?
A Facial expressions can only reflect emotional states.
B Facial expressions may help people survive.
C Baring the teeth means the same to people all over the world.
D Human emotions that were not expressed would become less intensive.
According to paragraph 2, the Fore people______.
A knew little about Western culture
B showed facial expressions different from people in other parts of the world
C were famous for their solitude
D had never been taken photographs before
According to the facial-feedback hypothesis, the relationship between emotions and facial expressions is______.
A no causal
B causal with the former deciding the latter
C causal with the latter deciding the former
D causal of two directions
Ekman has found that______.
A people might have different expressions for the same emotion
B pleasant feelings often stimulate Duchenne smile
C crow's feet wrinkles often accompanied the Duchenne smile
D keeping a stiff upper lip was useful for handling stress
Jan Hendrik Schon's success seemed too good to be true, and it was. In only four years as a physicist at Bell Laboratories, Schon, 32, had co-authored 90 scientific papers — one every 16 days, which astonished his colleagues, and made them suspicious. When one co-worker noticed that the same table of data appeared in two separate papers — which also happened to appear in the two most prestigious scientific journals in the world, Science and Nature — the jig was up. In October 2002, a Bell Labs investigation found that Schon had falsified and fabricated data. His career as a scientist was finished.
If it sounds a lot like the fall of Hwang Woo Suk — the South Korean researcher who fabricated his evidence about cloning human cells — it is. Scientific scandals, which are as old as science itself, tend to follow similar patterns of hubris and comeuppance. Afterwards, colleagues wring their hands and wonder how such malfeasance can be avoided in the future. But it never is entirely. Science is built on the honor system; the method of peer-review, in which manuscripts are evaluated by experts in the field, is not meant to catch cheats. In recent years, of course, the pressure on scientists to publish in the top journals has increased, making the journals much more crucial to career success. The questions raised anew by Hwang's fall are whether Nature and Science have become too powerful as arbiters of what science reaches the public, and whether the journals are up to their task as gatekeepers.
Each scientific specialty has its own set of journals. Physicists have Physical Review Letters; cell biologists have Cell; neuroscientists have Neuron, and so forth. Science and Nature, though, are the only two major journals that cover the gamut of scientific disciplines, from meteorology and zoology to quantum physics and chemistry. As a result, journalists look to them each week for the cream of the crop of new science papers. And scientists look to the journals in part to reach journalists. Why do they care? Competition for grants has gotten so fierce that scientists have sought popular renown to gain an edge over their rivals. Publication in specialized journals will win the accolades of academics and satisfy the publish- or-perish imperative, but Science and Nature come with the added bonus of potentially getting your paper written up in The New York Times and other publications.
Scientists are also trying to reach other scientists through Science and Nature, not just the public. Scientists tend to pay more attention to the Big Two than to other journals. When more scientists know about a particular paper, they're more apt to cite it in their own papers. Being off-cited will increase a scientist's "Impact Factor", a measure of how often papers are cited by peers. Funding agencies use the Impact Factor as a rough measure of the influence of scientists they're considering supporting.
Whether the clamor to appear in these journals has any beating on their ability to catch fraud is another matter. The fact is that fraud is terrifically hard to spot. Consider the process Science used to evaluate Hwang's 2005 article. Science editors recognized the manuscript's import almost as soon as it arrived. As part of the standard procedure, they sent it to two members of its Board of Reviewing Editors, who recommended that it go out for peer review (about 30 percent of manuscripts pass this test). This recommendation was made not on the scientific validity of the paper, but on its "novelty, originality, and trendiness", says Denis Duboule, a geneticist at the University of Geneva and a member of Science's Board of Reviewing Editors, in the January 6 issue of Science.
After this, Science sent the paper to three stem-cell experts, who had a week to look it over. Their comments were favorable. How were they to know that the data was fraudulent? "You look at the data and do not assume it's fraud," says one reviewer, anonymously, in Science.
In the end, a big scandal now and then isn't likely to do much damage to the big scientific journals. What editors and scientists worry about more are the myriad smaller infractions that occur all the time, and which are almost impossible to detect. A Nature survey of scientists published last June found that one-third of all respondents had committed some forms of misconduct. These included falsifying research data and having "questionable relationships" with students and subjects — both charges leveled against Hwang. Nobody really knows if this kind of fraud is on the rise, but it is worrying.
Science editors don't have any plans to change the basic editorial peer-review process as a result of the Hwang scandal. They do have plans to scrutinize photographs more closely in an effort to spot instances of fraud, but that policy change had already been decided when the scandal struck. And even if it had been in place, it would not have revealed that Hwang had misrepresented photographs from two stem cell colonies as coming from 11 colonies. With the financial and deadline pressures of the publishing industry, it's unlikely that the journals are going to take markedly stronger measures to vet manuscripts. Beyond replicating the experiments themselves, which would be impractical, it's difficult to see what they could do to make Science beyond the honor system.
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A Key scientific journals are authoritative in evaluating scientific papers.
B Peer-review is the most effective method in evaluating and selecting scientific papers.
C Scientists are less likely to achieve career success without publications in top papers.
D Fabricating evidence in scientific researches can be discovered by evaluation strict enough.
Science and Nature are top journals in the world in that______.
A they are built on the honor system
B they are the only world-recognized journals in the scientific circle
C they cover all the research areas of science
D they are as popular as public magazines
What can be inferred about a scientist's "Impact Factor"?
A One is more likely to get funding for research with a high Impact Factor.
B One is more likely to get paper published with a high Impact Factor.
C One's Impact Factor will be increased once he or she has paper published in Science.
D One's Impact Factor will be increased when more people read his or her paper.
According to the passage, manuscripts of science are evaluated to______.
A find novelty
B catch fraud
C test scientific validity
D detect suspicious scientific points
What would be detrimental to big scientific journals according to the author?
A Big scientific scandals once in a while.
B Small infractions all the time.
C Unreliable research data in papers.
D Lack of originality in research papers.
Science has decided to______.
A change its basic evaluation process
B sue Hwang Woo Suk
C have more thorough scrutiny of photographs for fraud
D ensure scientific validity of papers by replicating the experiments
As much as murder is a staple in mystery stories, so is love. Love may be a four-letter word, or the greatest of the trio of faith, hope, and love. It may appear in a mystery as the driving force behind the plot and the characters. Or it may appear as an aside in a sub-plot, a light spot in a heavy story. But it's there. Even Valentine knew love was worth dying for.
An emotion this strong gets a lot of attention. Love has its own special day, St. Valentine's Day. According to legend, the Roman emperor Claudius Ⅱ needed soldiers to fight for him in the far reaches of the Roman Empire. He thought married men would rather stay home than go to war for a couple of years, so he outlawed marriage and engagements. This did not stop people from falling in love. Valentine, a priest, secretly married many young couples. For this crime, he was arrested and executed on February 14.
St. Valentine's Day was off to a rocky start. Love, secrecy, crime, death. Love prevailed, and the day lost its seamy side. Valentine's Day became a day to exchange expressions of love. Small children give each other paper hearts. Adults exchange flowers and chocolates. Everyone has an attack of the warm fuzzies.
Valentine's Day was popular in Europe in the early 1800s as a day men brought gifts to the women they loved. Gradually the expectations grew higher, the gifts got bigger, and eventually the holiday collapsed under the weight of the bills.
It was revived when the custom of exchanging love letters and love cards replaced the mandatory gifts. A young man's love was measured in how much time he spent making a card with paper, lace, feathers, beads, and fabric. If the young man wasn't good with scissors and glue, the job could be hired out to an artist who made house calls.
Valentine's Day grew more popular when machine-made cards became available, and people didn't have to make their own. In England in 1840, the nation-wide Penny Post made it cheap for everyone to send Valentine cards. In the United States, national cheap postal rates were set in 1845, and valentines filled the mail.
"Roses are red; violets are blue" was a popular verse on Valentine cards. Other holidays are associated with particular flowers — the Christmas poinsettia, the Easter lily but Valentine's Day has no specific flower. Instead, it has colors — red, pink, and white. Red symbolizes warmth and feeling. White stands for purity. According to one romantic flower code, messages can be spelled out with flowers. Gardenias say "I love you secretly." Violets say "I return your love." Roses say "I love you passionately." Not surprisingly, the rose is now the top-seeded flower of love.
But love mostly goes wrong in mystery stories, very badly wrong. Somebody does something wrong. Husbands, wives, and lovers kill each other, or kill for each other. Stack the characters up in any kind of love triangle, and watch how the angles are knocked off. Love is unrequited, thwarted and scorned. Murders are motivated by real or imaginary love, or the lack of it. That famous novelist Ernest Hemingway said, "If two people love each other there can be no happy end to it." So it goes in the mystery. Justice may win, but love is often the loser.
In addition to plots driven by love, or the lack of it, there are sleuths who encounter love in the solving of the crime. The handsome or beautiful detective meets the suspect or the client. Their affair grows around, and in spite of, the murder. Think of the movies Casablanca and Chinatown. Barbara D'Amato offers a different twist on this theme in "Hard Feelings". The amateur sleuth meets a suspect or investigating officer and love smolders around the crime. Rose DeShaw's "Love with the Proper Killer" is such a story.
In a series of novels, if the continuing character is living a full life, love enters the storyline somewhere. Dorothy L. Sayers' sleuth Lord Peter Wimsey fell in love with Harriet Vane while he sleuthed his way through a few books. Sherlock Holmes remained aloof, but Dr. Watson fell in love and married between impossible crimes. There were no such temptations for Hercule Poirot or Jane Marple, but Agatha Christie created Tuppence and Tommy Beresford as a detecting couple.
Real crimes are sometimes motivated by love, and are written about in true crime books. E.W. Count describes one such case in "Love is a Risk". "Married to a Murderer", by Alan Russell, follows the crime one step further.
Feeling an attack of the warm fuzzies? Do something sweet for someone you love. Then do something sweet for yourself. Settle back with soft music and savor the online mysteries of love and romance.
The word "staple" in paragraph 1 means______.
A necessary element
B chief goads
C metal stick
D metal bar
Which of the following statements is NOT true about St. Valentine's Day?
A It originated from a legend.
B It was named after a priest.
C It was first to commemorate death of one's beloved.
D It used to have a seamy side.
The passage implies that in mystery stories, love often ______.
A turns into hatred at last
B serves as incentives for murders
C excludes sleuths
D beats justice
The passage may be______.
A a foreword to a website column
B an advertisement for a series of books
C a discussion of the origin of St. Valentine's Day
D a review of some mysteries
If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.
Here is an example, which I heard at a nurse's convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch; the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God,," came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor."
If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.
If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.
Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. It's a twist on a familiar quote "If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements: Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.
What is essential in making humor effective?
A Personal charm of the humor user.
B Understanding the audience's situation.
C Sympathy for the audience.
D Identification of the audience's social status.
The author cited the doctor story to______.
A show how supercilious doctors are
B show how nurses dislike doctors
C illustrate the importance of shared experiences in using humor
D illustrate the author's capability of understanding humor
Which of the following might work as humor according to the author?
A Making remarks about the inadequacy of hotel services with a group of hotel waiters.
B Complaining about the dullness of newspaper content with some editors of it.
C Commenting on the greediness of lawyers with several solicitors.
D Teasing the inflexibility of traffic wardens with a group of drivers.
What can help make one's humorous remarks natural and casual?
A Preparation in advance.
B The way one speaks.
C Innate sense of humor.
D Calm facial expression.
The passage discusses all of the following EXCEPT ______.
A how one can be humorous
B how humor works
C where humor can come from
D how practice can make one's humor perfect
The longest river in Britain is______.
A the Mersey
B the Severn
C the Thames
D the Clyde
The largest city of British Columbia in Canada is______.
Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by ______.
A Nathaniel Hawthorne
B Harriet Beecher Stowe
C Stephen Crane
D Eugene O'Neil
The Parliament of Australia consists of the House of Representatives and______.
A the House of Commons
B the House of Lords
C the Senate
D the General
Ten amendments introduced by James Madison in 1789 were added to the Constitution, which are known as______.
A the Bill of Rights
B the Civil Rights
C Federalist Papers
D the Articles of Confederation
Which of the following is NOT a case in English?
______ is often described as "father of modem linguistics".
Which of the following phrases is an example of an endocentric construction?
A on the shelf
B beyond the words
C an old man
D without thinking
A reference in a literary work to a person, a place or a thing in history or another work of literary is an______.
Who is called "father of English and European novels"?
A Mark Twain
B Daniel Defoe
C William Makepeace Thackeray
D David Herbert Lawrence
The ways of history are so intricate and the motivations of human actions
so complex that it is always hazardous to attempt to represent events cover 1______
a number of years, a multiplicity of persons, and distant localities as the
expression of one intellectual and social movement; yet the historical process 2______
which culminates in the ascent of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency 3______
can be regarded as the outstanding example not only of the birth of a new
way of life but nationalism as a new way of life. The American Revolution 4______
represents the link between the seventeenth century, in which modem England
became conscious of itself, and the awakening of modem Europe in the 5______
end of the eighteenth century. It may seem strange that the march of history
should have to cross the Atlantic Ocean, but only in the North American 6______
colonies a struggle for civic liberty lead also to the foundation of a new 7______
nation. Here, in the popular rising for a "tyrannical" government, the fruits 8______
were more than the securing of a free constitution. They included the growth 9______
of a nation born in liberty by the will of the people, not from the roots
of common descent, a geographic entity, or the ambitions of king or dynasty.
With the American nation, in the first time, a nation was born, not in the 10______
dim past of history but before the eyes of the whole world.
As a probing psychologist he is the unrivalled master among all living British and American novelists. Neither do any of his colleagues possess his fantastic imaginative powers and his ability to create characters. His subhuman and superhuman figures, tragic or comic in a macabre way, emerge from his mind with a reality that few existing people — even those nearest to us — can give us, and they move in a milieu whose odors of subtropical plants, ladies' perfumes, Negro sweat, and the smell of horses and mules penetrate immediately even into a Scandinavian's warm and cosy den. As a painter of landscapes he has the hunter's intimate knowledge of his own hunting-ground, the topographer's accuracy, and the impressionist's sensitivity. Moreover — side by side with Joyce and perhaps even more so — Faulkner is the great experimentalist among twentieth-century novelists. Scarcely two of his novels are similar technically. It seems as if by this continuous renewal he wanted to achieve the increased breadth which his limited world, both in geography and in subject matter, cannot give him.
The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Write an essay of about 400 words to state your opinion. In the first part of your essay you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you shouM support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary. You should supply an appropriate title for your essay. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
A collapse of Iraq government may lead to all of the following EXCEPT ______.
A chaos in the region
B stronger radical Islamic extremists
C Iran's gaining new recruits
D Iran's pursuing nuclear weapons openly
What do Democratic and Republican Senators think of President Bush's decision to send troops to Iraq?
A They both support it.
B They both oppose it.
C They both remain neutral to it.
D They have different views towards it.