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2016年大学英语考试《专业英语八级》预测试题及答案解析(十九)
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第 1 题:Listening Comprehension ( Mini-Lecture ):

 Age Structures in Mexico and Sweden

Age structure refers to the percentage of the population in different age
(1) ______Mexico's age structure is quite different from Sweden's in  
that the former is like a (2) ______with a wider base. In Sweden, the age  
structure is shaped like a rectangle, which results from a(n) (3) ______  
birth rate and low death rate in early and middle age. In Mexico, the
population is expanding rapidly. In Sweden, the population is stable in size
with a(n) (4) ______distribution.  
The Effects of Different Age Structures..
—Age structures affects population growth:
a) A country with a larger percentage of people at the bottom of the
pyramid will have a (5) ______population growth rate.  
b) a larger proportion of women of (6) ______age results in a faster 
population growth.
—Age structure affects (7) ______:  
1) a larger percentage of people of (8) ______, age means more wealth  
and higher standard of living.
2) a larger proportion of children is responsible for more expenditure on
(9) ______to achieve the same standards.  
3) the (10) ______rate is likely to be higher for jobs will have to be  
found for a larger number of graduates.


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第 2 题:Listening Comprehension ( Interview ):

1小题>

The following cannot be sent for recorded delivery EXCEPT ______.

A parcels

B airway parcels

C mail for the Irish Republic

D documents of little monetary value

2小题>

Which of the following is NOT TRUE of recorded delivery?

A It is signed for by the recipient.

B A record of the delivery is kept by the post office.

C The post office undertakes to deliver it to the addressee in person.

D Recorded delivery mail is carried with the ordinary unregistered post.

3小题>

Which of the following entitles a person to compensation for loss according to Susan?

A Unregistered mail.

B Recorded delivery.

C Registered delivery.

D Urgent mail.

4小题>

What can be seht by registered mail?

A A first-class letter.

B Urgent mail.

C A railway letter.

D An airway packet.

5小题>

Compensation will not be paid for the following EXCEPT ______.

A coupons

B bank notes

C trading stamps

D packets

第 3 题:Listening Comprehension (News Broadcast):

1小题>

The following are the decisions made by European Union on Wednesday EXCEPT that ______.

A Microsoft should put an end to its business in Europe

B Microsoft should pay about six hundred million dollars

C Microsoft should give information about its Windows system

D Microsoft should make another version of Windows without using its own software

2小题>

What percentage does Microsoft account for in the software for personal computers in the world?

A 19%.

B 90%.

C 40%.

D 70%.

第 4 题:Listening Comprehension (News Broadcast):

1小题>

The Group of Seven finance ministers regularly meet to ______.

A discuss how to promote international economic growth

B set policy direction for International Monetary Fund

C talk about how to meet the challenges posed by globalization

D discuss how to control production

2小题>

Canada's finance minister was concerned about ______.

A the impact of globalization

B the impact of U. S. budget deficit

C the rise of unemployment rate in China

D the debt relief of the poor countries

第 5 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):


For me, scientific knowledge is divided into mathematical sciences, natural sciences dealing with the natural world (physical and biological), and sciences dealing with mankind (psychology, sociology, all the sciences of culture achievements, and every kind of historical knowledge). Apart from these sciences is philosophy, about which we will talk later. In the first place, all this is pure or theoretical knowledge, sought only for the purpose of understanding, in order to fulfill the need to understand what is intrinsic and consubstantial to man. What distinguishes man from animal is that he knows and needs to know. If man did not know that the world existed, and that the world was of a certain kind, that he was of a certain kind, he wouldn't be man. The technical aspects or applications of knowledge are equally necessary for man and are of the greatest importance, because they also contribute to defining him as man and permit him to pursue a life increasingly more truly human.
But even while enjoying the results of technical progress, he must defend the primacy and autonomy of pure knowledge. Knowledge sought directly for its practical applications will have immediate and foreseeable success, but not the kind of important result whose revolutionary scope is in large part unforeseen, except by the imagination of the Utopians. Let me recall a well-known example. If the Greek mathematicians had not applied themselves to investigation of conic sections, zealously and without the least suspicion that it might someday be useful, it would not have been possible centuries later to navigate far from shore. The first men to study the nature of electricity could not imagine that their experiments, carried on because of mere intellectual curiosity, would eventually lead to modern electrical technology, without which we can scarcely conceive of contemporary life. Pure knowledge is valuable for its own sake, because the human spirit cannot resign itself to ignorance. But, in addition, it is the foundation for practical results that would not have been reached if this knowledge had been sought disinterestedly.

1小题>

The author does not include among the sciences the study of ______.

A astronomy

B economics

C anthropology

D literature

2小题>

In the paragraphs that follow this passage, we may expect the author to discuss ______.

A the value of technical research

B the value of pure research

C philosophy

D scientific foundations

3小题>

The author points out that the Greeks who studied conic sections ______.

A were mathematicians

B were interested in navigation

C were unaware of the value of their studies

D worked with electricity

4小题>

Which one of the following best expresses the idea of this passage?

A Technical Progress.

B Man's Distinguishing Characteristics.

C Learning for Its Own Sake.

D The Difference Between Science and Philosophy.

5小题>

The practical scientist ______.

A knows the value of what he will discover

B is interested in the unknown

C knows that the world exists

D is a philosopher

第 6 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):


For most of us, work is the central, dominating fact of life. We spend more than half our conscious hours at work, preparing for work, traveling to and from work. What we do there largely determines our standard of living and the status we are accorded to a considerable extent as well. It is sometimes said that because leisure has become more important the indignities and injustices of work can be pushed into a corner, that because most work is pretty intolerable, the people who do it should compensate for its boredom, frustrations and humiliations by concentrating their hopes in the other parts of their lives. I reject that as a counsel of despair. For the foreseeable future the material and psychological rewards which work can provide, and the conditions in which work is done, will continue to play a vital part in determining the satisfaction that life can offer. Yet only a small minority can control the pace at which they work or the conditions in which their work is done; only for a small minority does work offer scope for creativity, imagination, or initiative.
Inequality at work and in work is still one of the most cruel and most glaring forms of inequality in our society. We cannot hope to solve the more obvious problems of industrial life, many of which arise directly or indirectly from the frustrations created by inequality at work, unless we tackle it head-on. Still less can we hope to create a decent and hi, mane society.
The most glaring inequality is that between managers and the rest. For most managers, work is an opportunity and a challenge. Their jobs engage their interest and allow them to develop their abilities. They are constantly learning; they are able to exercise responsibility; they have a considerable degree of control over their own and others' working lives. Most important of all, they have opportunity to initiate. By contrast, for most manual workers, and for a growing number of white-collar workers, work is a boring, dull, even painful experience. They spend all their working lives in conditions which would be regarded as intolerable for themselves by those who make the decisions which let such conditions continue. The majority has little control over their work; it provides them with no opportunity for personal development. Often production is so designed that workers are simply part of the technology. In offices, many jobs are so routine that workers justifiably feel themselves to be mere cogs in the bureaucratic machine. As a direct consequence of their work experience, many workers feel alienated from their work and their firm, whether it is in public or in private ownership.

1小题>

In the writer's opinion, people judge others by ______.

A the type of work they do

B the place where they work

C the time they spend at work

D the amount of money they earn

2小题>

According to the writer, in the future work will ______.

A matter less than it does now

B be as important as it is now

C be better paid than it is now

D offer more satisfaction than it does now

3小题>

What does the writer think is needed to solve our industrial problems?

A A reduction in the number of strikes.

B Equality in salaries.

C A more equal distribution of responsibility.

D An improvement in moral standards.

4小题>

What advantages does the writer say managers have over other workers?

A They won't lose their jobs.

B They get time off to attend courses.

C They can work at whatever interests them.

D They can make their own decisions.

5小题>

Working conditions generally remain bad because ______.

A the workers are quite satisfied with them

B no one can decide what to do about them

C managers see no need to change them

D office workers want to protect their position

第 7 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):


In the United States, there is some disagreement (to say the least) over the risks and benefits .of nuclear power. There can be no question that with our electrical power needs increasing rapidly, we cannot rely indefinitely on the earth's remaining fossil fuel supply. The question is, can we safely shift our reliance to nuclear fission power plants—considering the present state of our knowledge and technology? The American public has, in the past few years, developed a rather strong consensus regarding this question. Nuclear power has fallen into disfavor. The risks seem too great, the reward too small—at least for the immediate future.
It is not likely that an explosion of the type produced by atomic bombs can occur in the kinds of nuclear reactors being used today. However, we still don't know how close we came to a major tragedy at Three Mile Island. A far greater tragedy occurred at a nuclear plant at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union's Ukraine in 1986. The risks associated with nuclear power, however, are not always so spectacular. Some are of a far subtler nature. For example, radioactivity could be released into the environment from activities related to mining and processing nuclear fuel, from the transportation and recycling of the fuel and from storage of the radioactive wastes. We frequently hear of steam or gas leaks from the reactors themselves. ;And even the safest reactors normally leak small amounts of radiation into their immediate environment. (The problem with this is that there are no "safe" levels of radioactivity--only "acceptable" levels. )
We could probably greatly reduce the risks associated with nuclear power by simply exercising more care and common sense. There are numerous published accounts that attest to our carelessness, however. For example, it has been revealed that the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant in California was built on an earthquake fault line. At the WNP-2 plant in Washington State, the concrete contained air bubbles and pockets of water as well as shields that had been incorrectly welded. In 1981, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspected forty-three plants that were under construction and rated seven "below average" and thirty-six "average". None were rated even "above average".
Completely apart from the possibility of accidents, there is the unsolved problem of what to do with the radioactive wastes generated in the course of normal nuclear plant reactions. The problem is a tough one since such wastes can only be rendered safe by the passage of time. The waste radioactivity is .generated in the fuel system of the reactors because only a part of the fuel is fissionable and, for technical reasons, not all of the fissionable elements are spent. Much of the spent fuel materials removed from the reactor can be reused. However, some of the radioactive fuel in the spent elements cannot be removed, and this material adds to the radioactive waste.
We have already generated over 10,000 tons of nuclear waste, with another 47,000 tons expected by 19951 Most of the waste is in the form of fuel rods which are, for now, stored in baths filled with a solution of neutron-absorbing boric acid. The problem is that these are only temporary repositories and,' unless new space is found, existing plants must begin closing for lack of space. The rods can be reprocessed, but the technology could lead to the fuel for nuclear weapons.
The reprocessing also leaves "high-level liquid waste" that must be stored. The prevailing idea at the moment is to dry the liquid and mix it with molten glass that, when it hardens, can be stored in tanks. Suggestions range from burying it in the Antarctic to sending it into space.

1小题>

Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the selection?

A Numerous risks and problems have made nuclear power an unpopular energy source.

B There are fewer risks associated with nuclear power than the public believes exists.

C Explosions of the type produced by atomic bombs are unlikely.

D The primary problem at nuclear power plants is structural defects.

2小题>

Which of the following risks occurs most frequently at nuclear power plants?

A Leakage of untreated nuclear wastes.

B Explosions.

C Earthquakes.

D Gas or steam leaks.

3小题>

Which of the following facts from the selection best supports the statement that the radioactive waste is an unsolved problem?

A We have already generated over 10,000 tons of nuclear waste.

B Radioactivity could be released into the environmental from activities related to mining and processing nuclear fuel.

C Only a part of nuclear fuel is fissionable.

D A location for stainless steel tanks containing "high-level liquid waste" mixed with molten glass has not been found.

4小题>

Risks associated with nuclear power ______.

A can only occur at the plant Site

B may occur when wastes are transported or recycled

C are limited to structural problems within the plant

D are primarily a result of carelessness

5小题>

Most plants under construction inspected by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were rated

A defective

B below average

C average

D above average

第 8 题:Reading Comprehension (Comprehension):


Death is a subject that is evaded, ignored, and denied by our youth-worshipping, process- oriented society. It is almost as we have taken on death as just another disease )co be conquered. But the fact is that death is inevitable. We will all die; it is only a matter of time. Death is as much a part of human existence, of human growth and development, as being born. It is one of the few things in life we can count on, that we can be assured will occur. Death is not an enemy to be conquered or a prison to be escaped. It is an integral part of our lives that gives meaning to human existence, It sets a limit on our time in this life, urging us to do something productive with that time as long as it is ours to use.
This, then, is the meaning of Death: The Final Stage of Growth: All that you are and all that you've done and been is culminated in your death. When you're dying, if you're fortunate enough to have some prior warning (other than that we all have all the time if we come to terms with our finiteness), you get your final chance to grow,, to become more truly who you really are, to become more fully human. But you don't need to, nor should you wait until death is at your footstep before you start to really live. If you can begin to see death as an invisible, but friendly, companion on your life's journey—gently reminding you not to wait till tomorrow to do what you mean to do—then you can learn to live your life rather than simply passing through it.
Whether you die at a young age or when you are older is less important than whether you have fully lived the years you have had. One person may live more in eighteen years than another does in eighty. By living, we do not mean frantically accumulating a range and quantity of experience valued in fantasy by others. Rather, we mean living each day as if it is the only one you have. We mean finding a sense of peace and strength to deal with life's disappointments and pain while always striving to discover vehicles to make more accessible, increase, and sustain the joys and delights of life. One such vehicle is learning to focus on some of the things you have learned to tune out--to notice and take joy in the budding of new leaves in the spring, to wonder at the beauty of the sun rising each morning and setting each night, to take comfort in the smile or touch of another person, to watch with amazement the growth of a child, and to share in children's wonderfully" uncomplexed ", enthusiastic, and trusting approach to living.
To rejoice at the opportunity of experiencing each new day is to prepare for one's ultimate acceptance of death. For it is those who have not really lived—who have left issues unsettled, dreams unfulfilled, hopes shattered, and who have left the real things in life (loving and being loved by others, contributing in a positive way to other people's happiness and welfare)—who are most reluctant to die. It is never too late to start living and growing. This is the message delivered each year in Dickens' "Christmas Carol"—even old Scrooge who has spent years pursuing a life without love or meaning, is able through his willing it, to change the road he's on. Growing is the human way of living, and death is the 'final stage in the development of human being, for life to be valued every day, not simply near to the time of anticipated death, one's own inevitable death must be faced and accepted. We must allow death to provide a context for our lives, for in it lies the meaning of life and the key to our growth.
Think about your own death. How much time and energy have you put into examining your feelings, beliefs, hopes, and fears about the end of your life? What if you were told you had a limited time to live? Would it change the way you're presently conducting your life? Are there things you would feel an urgency to do before you died? Are you afraid of dying? Of death? Can you identify the sources of your fears? Consider the death of someone you love. What would you talk about to a loved one who was dying? How would you spend the time together? Are you prepared to cope with all the legal details of the death of a relative? Have you talked with your family about death and dying? Are there things, emotional and practical, that you would feel a need to work out with your parents, children, siblings before your own death or theirs? Whatever the things are that would make your life more personally meaningful before you die—do them now, because you are going to die; and you may not have the time or energy when you get your final notice.

1小题>

From the first sentence we can infer that ______.

A it is not worthwhile showing great respect to the young

B a progress-oriented society is denied

C death is a subject everyone is concerned about

D the elderly is held in less respect than the young

2小题>

In a sense, death is something welcome. It ______.

A is an integral part of our lives

B gives meaning to human existence

C sets a limit on our time in this life

D urges us to do everything

3小题>

According to the passage, you can have the fine qualities of life ______.

A if you are fortunate enough to have some prior warning that you are dying

B only if death is at your doorstep

C before you start to really live

D because your final chance to grow is inevitably coming

4小题>

When you begin to see death as an invisible, but friendly, companion on your life' s journey you ______.

A will be frightened

B cannot but wait till tomorrow to do what you mean to do

C are able to pass through your life as usual

D can learn to become more fully human

5小题>

Those who have fully lived the years they have had ______.

A usually die at an advanced age

B die young

C are enjoying life well in cherishing everything they experience

D are contemptible

第 9 题:单选题:

______is one of the best known novels written by Jane Austin.

A Jane Eyre

B Tess of the d'Urbervilles

C Pride and Prejudice

D The Wuthering Heights

第 10 题:单选题:

Which of the following does not belong to Shakespeare's romantic love comedies?

A Twelfth Night.

B As You Like It.

C The Tempest.

D The Merchant of Venice.

第 11 题:单选题:

A linguistic study is ______ if it aims to lay down rules for "correct and standard" behavior in using language, that is, to tell people what they should say and what they should not say.

A descriptive

B prescriptive

C constructive

D denotative

第 12 题:单选题:

From the perspective of traditional approach of syntax, noun has the categories of number, gender and ______.

A aspect

B case

C tense

D voice

第 13 题:单选题:

At the beginning of the 17th century the English language was brought to North America by colonists from England who used the language spoken in England, that is, the ______,language used by Shakespeare, Milton and Banyan.

A Elizabethan English

B Edwardian English

C King's English

D Standardized English

第 14 题:单选题:

Ernest Hemingway is one of the most famous American novelists, short-stow writers and essayists, whose simple prose style in the works like ______ have influenced a wide range of writers.

A All the King' s Men

B The Sun Also Rises

C The Color Purple

D The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

第 15 题:单选题:

The New Zealander who represents Queen Elizabeth 1I in New Zealand is called ______.

A Prime Minister

B General Governor

C General Secretary

D Governor-General

第 16 题:单选题:

The ocean of ______lies to the east of America.

A Atlantic

B Pacific

C Indian

D Arctic

第 17 题:单选题:

The present Sovereign of U. K. is ______.

A Queen Elizabeth Il

B Tony Blaire

C George W. Bush

D John Howard

第 18 题:单选题:

______in U. K. appeal to readers who want news of a more entertaining character.

A Quality papers

B Popular papers

C Evening papers

D Daily papers

第 19 题:Proofreading and Error Correction:

Among her fellow astronomers, Vera Rubin is known as an expert
observer of the night sky, one of the best. Her reputation derives from the
project she has doggedly pursued through most of her career: measuring how (1) ______
fast spiral galaxies are spinning, from their luminous cores out of the faint (2) ______
wisps of light at their fringes. Such a task may sound tedious; even her
colleagues thought so when she started the project 20 years ago. But for her (3) ______
painstaking measurements Rubin has learned something important about
galaxies: they spin so fast they have to fly apart. Since galaxies do not seem (4) ______
to be shedding stars the way like a rotating lawn sprinkler shed water; (5) ______
moreover, something must be holding the stars in. That something has to be (6) ______
gravity, no other force is powerful enough on a galactic scale. And where (7) ______
there is gravity, there is mass. Rubin realized that a huge reservoir Of extra
materials, invisible to her telescope, must be tucked away somewhere in each (8) ______
galaxy. We cannot see this matter—it is invisible to all our detectors. But
this "dark matter" seems to make up at least 90 percent of the mass of the
universe,
Large because of Rubia's work, dark matter has become the buzzword in (9) ______
Astronomy. Her work has stirred Such ferment that observers are desperate to (10) ______
find some way of seeing dark matter and theorists are desperate to find an
explanation of what it is—swarms of unknown elementary particles, for
instance, hidden armadas of Jupiter-like planets.

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第 20 题:填空题:

是的,北平是个都城,而能有好多自己产生的花、菜、水果,这就使人更接近了自然。从它里面说,它没有像伦敦的那些成天冒烟的工厂;从外面说,它紧连着园林、菜圃与农村。采菊东篱下,在这里,确是可以悠然见南山的;大概把“南”字变个“西”或“北”,也没有多少了不得的吧。像我这样的一个贫寒的人,或者只有在北平能享受一点清福了。好,不再说了吧;要落泪了,真想念北平呀!

第 21 题:填空题:

It is obvious that there is a great deal of difference between being international and being cosmopolitan. All good men are international. Nearly all bad men are cosmopolitan. If we are to be international we must be national. And it is largely because those who call themselves the friends of peace have not dwelt sufficienfiy on this distinction that they do not impress the bulk of any of the nations to which they belong. International peace means a peace between nations, not a peace after the destruction of nations. And in the case of national character this can be seen in a curious way. It will generally be found, I think, that the more a man really appreciates and admires the soul of another people the less he will attempt to imitate it; he will be conscious that there is something in it too deep and too unmanageable to imitate.

第 22 题:填空题:


The majority of countries in the world spend large amounts of money developing weapons to defend themselves though they are not at war. Some people propose that the money should be used to help the poor and disadvantaged people in these countries. Write an essay of about 400 words on the topic given below.

MORE WEAPONS OR BETTER LIVES?
   In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion-or a summary.
      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
      Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.

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