How to Read EffectivelyMany students tend to read books without any purpose. They often read a book slowly and in great detail with the result that they frequently have no (1)______view of what they are reading.
To read effectively, students are suggested to do the following:
1) To decide precisely on the (2)______ for reading a book.
2) To decide what they are going to read:
a. The (3)______page should be read first.
b. The chapter headings are useful in indicating what should be read.
c. The Index can help to (4)______the pages related to some
3) To read the opening and final paragraphs so that they could know what
a book is mainly about.
4) To ask themselves what is the main part of their reading and then try
to answer the question by making notes, which can help them to
concentrate on the reading and provide a (5)______which can bo
5) To increase reading speed without loss of (6)______
Three main kinds of silent reading speed:
1) the slowest, study speed for a higher level of understanding,
2) the average speed for easier textbooks, novels, etc.
3) the fastest: (7)______used to get a general idea of a book or an
The results of a survey of students' reading speed conducted by Edward
A good reader achieves (8)______comprehension when he skims at
over 800 words a minute, 70% comprehension at 250-500 words a minute,
and 80%-90% comprehension at 200-300 words a minute.
The average speed of a poor reader is 150 to (9)______words a
minute with a comprehension rate of (10)______.
Jack met Cole with the purpose of______.
A enquiring about a degree
B getting some information about a grant
C inquiring about the qualification for a degree
D discussing the complexity of the grant system
Which of the following is NOT TRUE of the award according to Cole?
A The award is paid direct to a college.
B The award involves tuition and other course fees.
C The award is paid direct to local education authorities.
D The award includes a fee element and a maintenance element.
The following are true of mandatory grants EXCEPT that______.
A mandatory grants are paid by local education authorities
B mandatory grants are only paid to students who are attending designated courses
C mandatory grants are only paid to students who are attending non-designated courses
D one has to satisfy some qualifying conditions if he wants to obtain mandatory grants
The following are the qualifications for a mandatory grant EXCEPT that______.
A one has been admitted to a designated course
B one has been in Britain for three years before a course begins
C one has attended a higher-education course for two years with a grant
D one has to participate in some examinations which are highly competitive
When local education authorities decide how much a grant is, they will take the following factors into consideration EXCEPT______.
A where one will be while studying
B one's examination results
C additional allowance one is able to get
D whether one lives with his parents or in a hall of residence
What percentage of Likud voted against the Prime Minister's plan?
A About 60 percent.
B About 40 percent.
C About 64 percent.
D 75 percent.
How many Likud members took part in the referendum regarding Ariel Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan?
What took place on Sunday?
A Sharon declared that he would resign.
B An Israeli woman and her daughters were killed by Palestinian gunmen
C Some Likud members refused to cast ballots because of the killing
D Sharon said that he would hold the referendum again despite his failure.
What's Kofi Annan's attitude towards the criticism of U. N. 's role in the Iraq oil-for-food program?
There is an allegation that______.
A Kojo Annan benefited illegally from oil-for-food program
B Kofi Annan was involved in some illegal activities in oil-for-food program
C U. N. was not active in the oil-for-food program
D U. N. did not monitor effectively what was imported into Iraq under the program
Campaigning on the Indian frontier is an experience by itself. Neither the landscape nor the people find their counterparts in any other portion of the globe. Valley walls rise steeply five or six thousand feet on every side. The columns crawl through a maze of giant corridors down which fierce snow-fed torrents foam under skies of brass. Amid these scenes of savage brilliancy there dwells a race whose qualities seem to harmonize with their environment. Except at harvest-time, when self-preservation requires a temporary truce, the Pathan tribes are always engaged in private or public war. Every man is a warrior, a politician and a theologian. Every large house is a real feudal fortress made, it is true, only of sun-baked clay, but with battlements, turrets, loopholes, drawbridges, etc. complete. Every village has its defence. Every family cultivates its vendetta; every clan, its feud. The numerous tribes and combinations of tribes all have their accounts to settle with one another. Nothing is ever forgotten, and very few debts are left unpaid. For the purposes of social life, in addition to the convention about harvest-time, a most elaborate code of honour has been established and is on the whole faithfully observed. A man who knew it and observed it faultlessly might pass unarmed from one end of the frontier to another. The slightest technical slip would, however, be fatal. The life of the Pathan is thus full of interest; and his valleys, nourished alike by endless sunshine and abundant water, are fertile enough to yield with little labour the modest material requirements of a sparse population.
Into this happy world the nineteenth century brought two new facts: the rifle and the British Government. The first was an enormous luxury and blessing; the second, an unmitigated nuisance. The convenience of the rifle was nowhere more appreciated than in the Indian highlands. A weapon which would kill with accuracy at fifteen hundred yards opened a whole new vista of delights to every family or clan which could acquire it. One could actually remain in one's own house and fire at one's neighbour nearly a mile away. One could lie in wait on some high crag, and at hitherto unheard-of ranges hit a horseman far below. Even villages could fire at each other without the trouble of going far from home. Fabulous prices were therefore offered for these glorious products of science. Rifle-thieves scoured all India to reinforce the efforts of the honest smuggler. A steady flow of the coveted weapons spread its genial influence throughout the frontier, and the respect which the Pathan tribesmen entertained for Christian civilization was vastly enhanced,
The action of the British Government on the other hand was entirely unsatisfactory. The great organizing, advancing, absorbing power to the southward seemed to be little better than a monstrous spoil-sport. If the Pathan made forays into the plains, not only were they driven hack (which after all was no more than fair), but a whole series of subsequent interferences took place, followed at intervals by expeditions which toiled laboriously through the valleys, scolding the tribesmen and exacting fines for any damage which they had done. No one would have minded these expeditions if they had simply come, had a fight and then gone away again. In many cases this was their practice under what was called the "butcher and bolt policy" to which the Government of India long adhered. But towards the end of the nineteenth century these intruders began to make roads through many of the valleys, and in particular the great road to Chitral. They sought to ensure the safety of these roads by threats, by forts and by subsidies. There was no objection to the last method so far as it went. But the whole of this tendency to road-making was regarded by the Pathans with profound distaste. All along the road people were expected to keep quiet, not to shoot one another, and above all not to shoot at travellers along the road. It was too much to ask, and a whole series of quarrels took their origin from this source.
The word debts in "very few debts are left unpaid" in the first paragraph means______.
Which of the following is NOT one of the geographical facts about the Indian frontier?
A Melting snows.
B Stretch of deserts.
C Steep hillsides.
D Fertile valleys.
According to the passage, the Pathans welcomed______.
A the introduction of the rifle
B the Spread of British rule
C the extension of luxuries
D the spread of trade
Building roads by the British______.
A put an end to a whole series of quarrels
B prevented the Pathans from earning on feuds
C lessened the subsidies paid to the Pathans
D gave the Pathans a much quieter life
A suitable title for the passage would be______.
A Campaigning on the Indian frontier
B Why the Pathans resented the British rule
C The 'popularity of rifles among the Pathans
D The Pathans at war
|"The US economy is rapidly deteriorating," says Mr. Grannis. "The odds of a recession are now very high, perhaps by the end of the year." There are already some signs that important pillars are weakening. Consumer confidence has fallen for the past two months. The housing sector, which has been buoyant, is starting to sink. Corporate profits are falling. Some analysts are especially concerned over the sharp fall of commodity prices. They believe it represents the threat of deflation, it could cause a global slowdown. "The Fed will have to act forcefully to arrest the deflationary forces," says Robert Lamorte, chairman of Behavioral Economics, a consulting firm in San Diego. But others counter that the central bank doesn't need to intervene. They argue the Fed should wait to see real data before acting. "The fundamentals are better than the stock market reflects", says Peter Kretzmer, an economist at Nations-Banc Montgomery Security. Indeed, President Clinton tried to do his part to calm the market during his trip to Moscow, citing the strong job market and balanced budget. "We believe our fundamental economic policy is sound," he said. His comments echoed statements by Peter Rubin in Washington. Some numbers do continue to reflect a strong economy. On Sep. 1, the Conference Board released its index of leading indicators. The index rose 0.4 percent, prompting the business organization to predict that the nation's output should increase at a moderate pace for the rest of 1998. The group sees little risk of recession in the near term. But what has changed is the global economy. Japan and the rest of Asia are in recession. The woes are spreading to Latin America. "I'm now convinced we are going to have a global economic recession,' says Sung Won Sohn, chief economist at Norwest Corp, a Minneapolis-based bank. But, he added, it's not certain the US will slide into a period of negative growth. He rates the risk of recession at only 10 to 15 percent. "We will be responding to the world economic situation rather than leading it "he says. Still, Fed watchers don't think the central bank will act to try to save the world. "It's inconceivable the Fed could make much difference in Asia, Russia, or Latin America," says Lyle Gramley, a former Fed governor. After the last stock market crash, in 1987, the Federal Reserve acted quickly to provide liquidity to the markets and to lower interest rates. But the economy is in better shape this time. The banking sector is stronger and the financial markets have been able to. respond to the enormous trading volume. "It is not the Fed's job to manage the stock market," says Mr. Kretzmer. But the Fed will keep a close watch on Wall Street. If the market were to shave another 1,500 points off the Dow by the end of September, "then the Fed would think about lowering interest rates," says Mr. Gramley. In his view, the Fed's main concern will be the impact of a sliding market on consumer confidence. Since 40 percent of the nation has investments in the stock market, any prolonged slide might make individuals feel less wealthy. They would cut back on vacations and "splurge" purchases. He expects the central bank to watch the next consumer confidence surveys and housing statistics closely.|
What did President Clinton try to do during his trip to Moscow?
A To pacify the market.
B To make a speech on American economy.
C To intervene.
D To cooperate with Russia to pursue sustainable development.
What is the Fed's main concern according to Mr. Gramley?
A To provide liquidity to the market.
B To keep a close watch on Wall Street.
C To observe the influence of a sliding market on consumer confidence and give a timely response.
D To prevent the stock market from sliding too much.
Which of the following is the most appropriate title for this passage?
A Threat of Deflation in US.
B Economic Situation in US.
C Why US Economy is slowing down.
D The Sign of Recession in US Economy.
In an intact plant community, undisturbed by human intervention, the composition of a community is mainly a function of the climate and the type of soil. Today, such original communities are very rare—they are practically limited to national parks and reservations.
Civilization has progressively transformed the conditions determining the composition of plant communities. For several thousand years vast areas of arable land have been hoed, ploughed, harrowed and grassland has been cut or grazed. During the last decades the use of chemical substances, such as fertilizers and most recently of weed killers (herbicides) has greatly influenced the composition of weed communities in farm land.
All selective herbicides have specific ranges of activity. They control the most important weeds but not all the plants of a community. The latter profit from the new free space and from the fertilizer as much as the crop does; hence they often spread rapidly and become weeds unless another herbicide for their eradication is found.
The soil contains enormous quantities of seeds of numerous specie—up to half a million per square meters according to scientific literature—that retain their ability to germinate for decades. Thus it may occur that weeds that were hardly noticed before emerge in masses after the elimination of their competitors. Hence, the knowledge of the composition of weed communities before selective weed killers are applied is not only of scientific interest since the plant species present in the soil in the form of seeds must be considered as potential weeds. For efficient control the identification of weeds at the seedling stage, i.e. at a time when they can still be controlled, is particularly necessary; for the choice of the appropriate herbicide depends on the composition of the weed community.
The composition of a plant community______.
A depends on climate and soil type in a virgin environment undamaged by human beings
B was greatly affected by human beings before they started using chemical substances on the soil
C was radically transformed by uncivilized human beings
D refers to plants, trees, climate, type of soil and the ecological environment
Why are there problem weeds?
A Because they cannot be eradicated by herbicides.
B Because all selective herbicides can encourage the growth of previously unimportant weeds by eliminating their competitors.
C Because they were hardly considered before so that their seeds were not prevented from germinating.
D Because they benefit greatly from the fertilizer applied to the farm land.
A knowledge of the composition of a weed community______.
A is essential to the efficient control of weeds
B may lead us to be aware of the fact that the soil contains enormous quantities of seeds of numerous species
C helps us to have a good idea of why seeds can lie dormant for years
D provides us with the means to identify weeds at the seedling stage
The best alternative title for the passage will be______.
A A Study of Weed Communities
B The Importance of Studying How Plants Live in Communities
C How Herbicides May Affect Farm Land
D Weed Control by Means of Herbicides
Traditionally, the study of history has had fixed boundaries and focal points—periods, countries, dramatic events, and great leaders. It also has had clear and firm notions of scholarly procedure., how one inquires into a historical problem, how one presents and documents one's findings, what constitutes admissible and adequate proof.
Anyone who has followed recent historical literature can testify to the revolution that is taking place in historical studies. The currently fashionable subjects come directly from the sociology catalog: childhood, work, leisure. The new subjects are accompanied by new methods. Where history once was primarily narrative, it is now entirely analytic. The old questions "What happened?" and "How did it happen?" have given way to the question "Why did it happen?" Prominent among the methods used to answer the question "Why" is psychoanalysis, and its use has given rise to psychohistory.
Psychohistory does not merely use psychological explanations in historical contexts. Historians have always used such explanations when they were appropriate and when there was sufficient evidence for them. But this pragmatic use of psychology is not what psycho historians intend. They are committed, not just to psychology in general, but to Freudian psychoanalysis. This commitment precludes a commitment to history as historians have always understood it. Psychohistory derives its "facts" not from history, the detailed records of events and their consequences, but from psychoanalysis of the individuals who made history, and deduces its theories not from this or that instance in their lives, but from a view of human nature that transcends history. It denies the basic criterion of historical evidence., that evidence be publicly accessible to, and therefore assessable by, all historians. And it violates the basic tenet of historical method that historians be alert to the negative instances that would refute their theses. Psycho historians, convinced of the absolute rightness of their own theories, are also convinced that theirs is the "deepest" explanation of any event, that other explanations fall short of the truth.
Psychohistory is not content to violate the discipline of history (in the sense of the proper mode of studying and writing about the past); it also violates the past itself. It denies to the past an integrity and will of its own, in which people acted out of a variety of motives and in which events had a multiplicity of causes and effects. It imposes upon the past the same determinism that it imposes upon the present, thus robbing people and events of their individuality and of their complexity. Instead of respecting the particularity of the past, it assimilates all events, past and present, into a single deterministic schema that is presumed to be true at all times and in all circumstances.
Which of the following best states the main point of the passage?
A The approach of psychohistorians to historical study is currently in vogue even though it lacks the rigor and verifiability of traditional historical method.
B Traditional historians can benefit from studying the techniques and findings of psychoistorians.
C Areas of sociological study such as childhood and work are of little interest to traditional historians.
D The psychological assessment of an individual's behavior and attitudes is more informative than the details of his or her daily life.
It can be inferred from the passage that the methods used by psychohistorians probably prevent them from______.
A presenting their material in chronological order
B producing a one-sided picture of an individual's personality and motivations
C uncovering alternative explanations that might cause them to question their own conclusions
D offering a consistent interpretation of the impact of personality on historical events
The author mentions which of the following as a characteristic of the practice of psychohistorians?
A The lives of historical figures are presented in episodic rather than narrative form.
B Archives used by psychohistorians to gather material are not accessible to other scholars.
C Past and current events are all placed within the same deterministic schema.
D Events in the adult life of a historical figure are seen to be more consequential than are those in the childhood of the figure.
The author of the passage suggests that psychohistorians view history primarily as
A a report of events, causes, and effects that is generally accepted by historians but which is, for the most part, unverifiable
B an episodic account that lacks cohesion because records of the role of childhood, work, and leisure in the lives of historical figures are rare
C an uncharted sea of seemingly unexplainable events that have meaning only when examined as discrete units
D a record of the way in which a closed set of immutable psychological laws seems to have shaped events
Pundits who want to sound judicious are fond of warning against generalizing. Each country is different, they say, and no one story fits all of Asia. This is, of course, silly., all of these economies plunged into economic crisis within a few months of each other, so they must have had something in common.
In fact, the logic of catastrophe was pretty much the same in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and South Korea. (Japan is a very different story. ) In each case investor— mainly, but not entirely, foreign banks who had made short-term loans—all tried to pull their money out at the same time. The result was a combined banking and currency crisis, a banking crisis because no bank can convert all its assets into cash on short notice; a currency crisis because panicked investors were trying not only to convert long-term assets into cash, but to convert baht or rupiah into dollars. In the face of the stampede, governments had no good options. If they let their currencies plunge inflation would soar and companies that had borrowed in dollars would go bankrupts if they tried to support their currencies by pushing up interest rates, the same firms would probably go bust from the combination of debt burden and recession. In practice, countries split the difference—and paid a heavy price regardless.
Was the crisis a punishment for bad economic management? Like most cliches, the catchphrase "crony capitalism" has prospered because it gets at something real: excessively cozy relationships between government and business really did lead to a lot of bad investments. The still primitive financial structure of Asian business also made the economies peculiarly vulnerable to a loss of confidence. But the punishment was surely disproportionate to the crime, and many investments that look foolish in retrospect seemed sensible at the time.
Given that there were no good policy options, was the policy response mainly on the right track? There was frantic blame-shifting when everything in Asia seemed to be going wrong: now there is a race to claim credit when some things have started to go right. The international Monetary Fund points to Korea's recovery—and more generally to the fact that the sky didn't fall after all—as proof that its policy recommendations were right. Never mind that other IMF clients have done far worse, and that the economy of Malaysia—which refused IMF help, and horrified respectable opinion by imposing capital controls—also seems to be on the mend. MalaYsia's prime Minister, by contrast, claims full credit for any good news—even though neighbouring economies also seem to have bottomed out.
The truth is that an observer without any ax to grind would probably conclude that none of the policies adopted either on or in defiance of the IMF's advice made much difference either way. Budget policies, interest rate policies, banking reform—whatever countries tried, just about ali the capital that could flee, did. And when there was no mere money to run, the natural recuperative powers of the economies finally began to prevail. At best, the money doctors who purported to offer cures provided a helpful bedside manner; at worst, they were like medieval physicians who prescribed bleeding as a remedy for all ills.
Will the patients stage a full recovery? It depends on exactly what you mean by "full". South Korea's industrial production is already above its pre-crisis level; but in the spring of 1997 anyone who had predicted zero growth in Korea's industry over the next two years would have been regarded as a reckless doomsayer. So if by recovery you mean not just a return to growth, but one that brings the region's performance back to something like what people used to regard as the Asian norm, they have a long way to go.
According to the passage, which of the following is NOT the writer's opinion?
A Countries paid a heavy price for whichever measure taken.
B Countries all found themselves in an economic dilemma.
C Withdrawal of foreign capital resulted in the crisis.
D Most governments chose one of the two options.
The writer thinks that those Asian countries______.
A well deserved the punishment
B invested in a senseless way at the time
C were unduly punished in the crisis
D had bad relationships between government and business
It can be inferred from the passage that IMF policy recommendations______.
A were far from a panacea in all cases
B were feasible in their recipient countries
C failed to work in their recipient countries
D were rejected unanimously by Asian countries
At the end of the passage, the writer seems to think that a full recovery of the Asian economy is______.
______is the national epic of the Anglo-Saxons.
A Robin Hood
B Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
C The Canterbury Tales
A group of lines which are set off and form a division in a poem is called a______.
The national anthem of Australia since 1984 has been______.
A "Waltzing Matilda"
B "Song of Australia"
C "Advance Australia Fair"
D "God Save The Queen"
A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language. The word dogs consists of morphemes and one syllable, and the word unladylike consists of______ morphemes and four syllables.
A one, three
B two, three
C two, two
D one, two
______refers to words whose several meanings are related to one another. For example the verb "open" may mean unfold, expand, reveal, etc.
The five great tragedies written by Shakespeare are Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello and______.
A King Lear
B Julius Caesar
C Twelfth Night
D Antony and Cleopatra
______can be defined as the study of how speakers use the sentences of the language to affect successful communication.
C Applied linguistics
Which of the following countries is a constitutional monarchy?
D South Africa.
Geographically, Scotland is divided into three main regions:______, the Midland Valley and the Southern Uplands.
A the Lowlands
B the Highlands
C the Pennines
D the Lake District
On which of the following streets is the financial centre of the US located?
A Fleet Street.
B Downing Street.
C Wall Street.
D Burke Street.
You should not fear spiders thanks to their poison. Of all the spiders in (1)______
North America, only one kind is really dangerous and most would not bite if
they were handled. They much prefer to run away or dropping to the ground (2)______
on a thread of silk. Even so, when a spider runs directly toward a person, it
gives impression that it is about to attack. Actually, it cannot see the person (3)______
on its way. The spider is too short-sighted to see things at the distance. It (4)______
only wanted to go where it won' t be disturbed. In America one kind of spider (5)______
is responsible for the frightened reputation of the rest. It is the Black Widow. (6)______
Such called because the female, which is larger than the male, often eats her (7)______
husband after making love. The Black Widow is found in all states or is most (8)______
common in the south and the west. She constructs a loose, irregular web
under a pile of ruin or near the foundations of buildings where she is seldom (9)______
disturbed. She is not an attacking spider and many people have proven this by
letting her to crawl over their hands. When she bites, it is usually in self- (10)______
defense. In spite of the stories you may have had heard, it is rare for a person
to be bitten by a Black Widow and even more unusual for the bite to prove
fatal. But remember that her poison is powerful and even though she is shy,
she should be respected.
Good manners are the art of making those easy with whom we converse. Whoever makes the fewest persons uneasy is the best bred in the company. As the best law is founded upon reason, so are the best manners. And as some lawyers have introduced unreasonable things into common law, so likewise many teachers have introduced absurd things into common good manners. One principal point of this art is to suit our behaviour to the three several degrees of men; our superiors, our equals, and those below us. For instance, to press either of the two former to eat or drink is a breach of manners; but a farmer or a tradesman must be thus treated, or else it will be difficult to persuade them that they are welcome. Pride, iii nature, and want of sense, are the three great sources of iii manners; without some one of these defects, no man will behave himself iii for want of experience; or of what, in the language of fools, is called knowing the world. I defy any one to assign an incident wherein reason will not direct us what we are to say or do in company, if we are not misled by pride or iii nature.
Some people think that those who have received higher education should be paid a higher salary than those who have not because the former have paid more for their education. Write an essay of about 400 words on the topic given below.
THE BETTER ONE'S EDUCATION, THE HIGHER ONE'S SALARY? In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks. Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.