Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Nature or Nurture. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
For questions 1-4, markY (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;N (for NO)if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Suggestions for Improving Reading Speed
Improvement of Reading Rate
It is safe to say that almost anyone can double his or her speed of reading while maintaining equal or even better comprehension. In other words, you can improve the speed with which you get what you want from your reading.
The average college student reads between 250 and 350 words per minute on fiction and non-technical materials. A "good" reading speed is around 500 to 700 words per minute, but some people can read 1,000 words per minute or more on these materials.
What makes the difference? There are three main factors involved in improving reading speed: (1) the desire to improve, (2) the willingness to try new techniques and (3) the motivation to practice.
Learning to read rapidly and well presupposes that you have the necessary vocabulary and comprehension skills. When you have advanced on the reading comprehension materials to a level at which you can understand college-level materials, you will be ready to practice speed reading in earnest.
The Role of Speed in the Reading Process
Understanding the role of speed in the reading process is essential. Research shows a close relation between speed and understanding--although it is the opposite of what you might expect! Among thousands of individuals taking reading training, in most cases an increase in rate was accompanied by an increase in comprehension and a decrease in rate brought decreased comprehension with it. It appears that plodding or word-by-word analysis inhibits rather than increases understanding.
Most adults are able to increase their reading rate considerably and rather quickly without lowering their comprehension. These same individuals usually show a decrease in comprehension when they reduce their rate. Such results, of course are heavily dependent upon the method used to gain the increased rate. Simply reading more rapidly without actual improvement in basic reading habits usually results in lowered comprehension.
Factors that Reduce Reading Rate
Some of the factors which reduce reading rate:
1. Limited perceptual span (word-by-word reading);
2. Slow perceptual reaction time (slow recognition and response to the material)
3. Vocalization (reading aloud)
4. Faulty eye movements (including inaccuracy in placement of the page, in return sweep, in rhythm and regularity of movement, etc.);
5. Regression (needless or unconscious re-reading)
6. Faulty habits of attention and concentration (including simple inattention during the reading act and faulty processes of retention)
7. Lack of practice in reading--use it or lose it!
8. Fear of losing comprehension, causing the person to deliberately read more slowly;
9. Habitual slow reading, in which the person cannot read faster because he or she has always read slowly;
10. Poor evaluation of which aspects are important and which are unimportant;
11. The effort to remember everything rather than to remember selectively.
Since these conditions also tend to reduce comprehension, increasing the reading rate by eliminating them is likely to produce increased comprehension, too. This is entirely different from simply speeding up the rate of reading--which may actually make the real reading problem more severe. In addition, forced acceleration may destroy confidence in one's ability to read. The obvious solution, then, is to increase rate as a part of a total improvement of the whole reading process, as special training programs in reading do.
Basic Conditions for Increasing Reading Rate
A well-planned program prepares for maximum increase in rate by establishing the necessary conditions. Four basic conditions include:
1. Have your eyes checked. Often, very slow reading is related to uncorrected eye defects.
Before embarking on a speed reading program, make sure that any correctable eye defects you may have are taken care of.
2. Eliminate the habit of pronouncing words as you read. If you sound out words in your throat or whisper them, your reading rate is slowed considerably. You should be able to read most materials at least two or three times faster silently than orally, because you can get meaning from phrases without reading each word individually. If you are aware of sounding or "hearing" words as you read, try to concentrate on key words and meaningful ideas as you force yourself to read faster.
3. Avoid regressing (rereading). The average student reading at 250 words per minute regresses or rereads about 20 times per page. Rereading words and phrases is a habit which will slow your reading speed down to a snail's pace. Usually, it is unnecessary to reread words, for the ideas you want are explained and elaborated more fully later.
Furthermore, the slowest reader usually regresses most frequently. Because he reads slowly, his mind has time to wander and his rereading reflects both his inability to concentrate and his lack of confidence in his comprehension skills.
4. Develop a wider eye-span. This will help you read more than one word at a glance. Since written material is less meaningful if read word by word, this will help you learn to read by phrases or thought units.
Poor results are inevitable if the reader attempts to use the same rate for all types of material and for all reading purposes. He must learn to adjust his rate to his purpose in reading and to the difficulty of the material. The fastest rate works on easy, familiar, interesting material or in reading to gather information on a particular point; A slower rate is better for material which is unfamiliar in content and language structure or which must be thoroughly digested. The effective reader adjusts his rater the ineffective reader always uses the same.
Rate may be adjusted overall for an entire article, or internally for parts of an article. As an analogy, imagine that you plan to take a 100-mile mountain trip. Since this trip will include hills, curves, and a mountain pass, you estimate it will take three hours for the total trip, averaging about 35 miles an hour. This is your overall rate adjustment. In actual driving, however, you may slow down to no more than 15 miles per hour on some curves and hills, while speeding up to 50 miles per hour or more on relatively straight and level sections. This is your internal rate adjustment. Similarly, there is no set rate which the good reader follows inflexibly in reading a particular selection, even though he has set himself an overall rate for the total job.
Reading rate should vary according to your reading purpose. To understand information, for example, skim or scan at a rapid rate. To determine the value of material or to read for enjoyment, read rapidly or slowly according to your feeling. To read analytically, read at a moderate pace to permit you to interrelated ideas.
The nature and difficulty of the material also calls for adjustments in rate. Obviously, level of difficulty depends greatly on the particular reader's knowledge. While Einstein's theories may be extremely difficult for most laymen, they would be very simple and clear to a professor of physics. Hence, the layman and the physics professor will read the same material at different rates. Generally, difficult material will entail a slower rater simpler material will permit a faster rate.
In general, decrease speed when you find the following:
1. Unfamiliar terminology. Try to understand it in context at that point; otherwise, read on and return to it later.
2. Difficult sentence and paragraph structure. Slow down enough to enable you to untangle them and get accurate context for the passage.
3. Unfamiliar or abstract concepts. Look for applications or examples of your own as well as studying those of the writer. Take enough time to get them clearly in mind.
4. Detailed, technical material. This includes complicated directions, statements of difficult principles, and materials on which you have scant background.
5. Material on which you want detailed retention.
In general, Increase speed when you meet the following:
1. Simple material with few ideas which are new to you. Move rapidly over the familiar ones; spend most of your time on the unfamiliar ideas.
2. Unnecessary examples and illustrations. Since these are included to clarify ideas, move over them rapidly when they are not needed.
3. Detailed explanation and idea elaboration which you do not need.
4. Broad, generalized ideas and ideas which are restatements of previous ones. These can be readily grasped, even with scan techniques.
A person with a good reading speed usually reads between 250 and 350 words per minute on fiction and non-technical materials.
If one attempts to remember everything rather than to remember selectively during reading, he/she may have a comparatively slow reading rate.
The writer proposes to use the same rate for all types of material and for all reading purposes.
Knowledgeable people read faster.
If one has the desire to improve his reading speed, the motivation to practice and, he may improve his reading speed.
A precondition for a reader to learn to read rapidly and well is that he must have the necessary ______.
Different from what most people expect, the research shows that an increase in reading rate may lead to ______.
To avoid destroying confidence in one's ability to read, one should speed up the rate of reading as apart of ______.
Rereading of a slow reader reflects both his ______ and his lack of confidence in his comprehension skills.
An effective reader usually adjusts his rate to his purpose in reading and to the difficulty of the material while an ineffective reader always ______.
A That he not tutor students.
B That he work on improving his languages skills.
C That he work as a tutor to pay his tuition.
D That he try to find a job in Italy.
A To act as an interpreter.
B To check the patient as a doctor.
C To work as nurse in the hospital.
D To chat with the patient.
A He thinks the woman is right.
B He thinks it better to post the card earlier.
C He is sure the card will be delayed.
D He thinks a delay is impossible.
A In a cafeteria.
B At a zoo.
C At an art museum.
D On a college campus.
A The woman is afraid of thunderstorms.
B The man works for a good roofing company.
C The roof of the woman's house needs repairing.
D The man's roof is leaking and he asks the woman to help him.
A He thinks that the salesman was realistic.
B He thinks that the salesman exaggerated his part.
C He thinks that the salesman was not dramatic enough.
D He thinks that the salesman played his part well.
A March 3rd.
B March 29th.
C March 12th.
D March 30th.
A He should sit in the smoking section.
B He should ask the stewardess for help.
C He should move to another part of the plane.
D He should extinguish his cigarette at once.
A More than 20 minutes.
B More than 18 minutes
C Less than 6 minutes.
D Less than 12 minutes.
A She is an artist.
B She is a tourist.
C She is a staff of the Museum.
D She is the owner of a restaurant.
A For its cheap price.
B For its authentic decoration.
C For its quiet environment.
D For its tasty food.
A By taxi.
B By bus.
C By subway.
D By bicycle.
A Teacher and student.
B Mother and son.
D Brother and sister
A Warm-hearted, self-disciplined, patient.
B Hot-tempered, diligent, kind.
C Easy-going, warm-hearted, stubborn.
D Self-centered, hard-working, considerate.
A He spends much school time playing computer games.
B He often dozes off in class.
C He doesn't take the assignments seriously.
D He plays computer games because the textbooks are dull and lectures are boring.
A The 2000 Olympic Games.
B The Euro 2004 international soccer contest.
C The 2006 Olympic Games.
D Both Ｂ) and Ｃ).
A Campus facilities for international students.
B Optional courses for international students.
C Activities on and off campus for international students.
D Accommodation choices for international students.
A Keeping their dormitory clean.
B Their behavior in the dormitory.
C The furniture in the dormitory.
D The public facilities in the dormitory.
A Traveling in a car to the campus.
B No housework to do.
C Some freedom of choosing a roommate.
D Arrange the furniture at will.
A The population of elderly people.
B Nuclear weapon.
C Violence in crime.
D Living standards.
A Growth of violence on TV.
B Destructive threat from nuclear explosives.
C Decreasing of moral standards.
D All of the above.
A People are more destructive.
B People are more selfish.
C People do what they preach now.
D People do not have moral principles to follow now.
Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we (1)_________ to our changing environment. As a (2) _________ influence, stress can help us take action. As a (3)_________ influence, it can lead to health problems such as (4)_________ . insomma, ulcers, high blood pressure and heart disease.
Our goal is not to eliminate stress but to learn how to (5)_________ it and how to use it to help us. (6)_________ stress may make us feel bored; on the other hand. (7)_________ stress may make us feel tied up in knots. What we need to do is to find the optimal level of stress which will (8)_________ but not overwhelm ns.
There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people. (9)___________________________________________ . Moreover, our personal stress requirements and the amount which we can tolerate changes with our ages.
It has been revealed that most illness is related to unrelieved stress. (10) ___________________________________________ There are many sources of stress, and there are many possibilities for its management. Here are three principles as to how to manage stress:
2. Recognize what you can change.
3. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress.
The first time anybody knew about Dutchman Frank Siegmund and his family was when workmen tramping through a field found a narrow steel chimney protruding through the grass. Closer inspection revealed a chink of sky-light window among the thistles and when amazed investigators moved down the side of the hill they came across a pine door and a brass knocker set into an underground building. The Siegmunds had managed to live undetected for six years outside the border town of Breda, in Holland. They are the latest in a clutch of individualistic homemakers who have burrowed underground in search of tranquility.
Most, falling foul of strict building regulations, have been forced to dismantle their individualistic homes and return to more conventional lifestyles. But subterranean suburbia Dutch- style, is about to become respectable and chic. Seven luxury homes cosseted away inside a high earth-covered noise embankment next to the main Tilburg city road recently went on the market for $ 296,500 each. The foundations had yet to be dug, but customers queued up to buy the unusual part-submerged houses.
Building big commercial buildings underground can be a way to avoid disfiguring or threatening a beautiful or environmentally sensitive landscape. Indeed many of the buildings which consume most land such as cinemas, supermarkets, theatres, warehouses or libraries have no need to be on the surface since they do not need windows. There are big advantages, too, when it comes to private homes. A development of 194 houses which would take up 14 hectares of land above ground would occupy 2.7 hectares below it, while the number of roads would be halved. Under several meters of earth, noise is minimal and insulation is excellent.
In Europe, the obstacle has been conservative local authorities and developers who prefer to ensure quick sales with conventional mass-produced housing. But the Dutch development was greeted with undisguised relief by South Limburg planners because of Holland's chronic shortage of land. In the US, where energy-efficient homes became popular after the oil crisis of 1973, 10,000 underground houses have been built. A terrace of five homes, Britain's first subterranean development, is under way in Nottinghamshire. Italy's outstanding example of subterranean architecture is the Olivetti residential centre in Ivreg.
Not everyone adapts so well, and in Japan scientists at the Shimizu Corporation have developed "space creation" system which mix light, sound, breezes and scents to simulate people who spend long periods below ground. Underground offices in Japan are being equipped with virtual windows and mirrors, while underground departments in the University of Minnesota have periscopes to reflect views and light.
Frank Siegmund and his family love their hobbit lifestyle. Their home evolved when he dug a cool room for his bakery business in a hill he had created. During a heat-wave they took to sleeping there. "We felt at peace and so close to nature," he says, "Gradually I began adding to the rooms. It sounds strange but we are so close ro the earth we draw strength from its vibrations. '
Why have some underground houses been pulled down?
What are the advantages of constructing private homes underground?
Many developer prefer mass-produced houses because they ______.
Japanese scientists are helping people ______ underground life.
Frank Siegmund's first underground room was used for ______.
Before, whenever we had wealth, we started discussing poverty. Why not now? Why is the current politics of wealth and poverty seemingly about wealth alone? Eight years ago, when Bill Clinton first ran. for president, the Dow Jones average was under 3,500, yearly federal budget deficits were projected at hundreds of billions of dollars forever and beyond, and no one talked about the "permanent boom" or the "new economy." Yet in that more straitened time, Clinton made much of the importance of "not leaving a single person behind." It is possible that similar "compassionate" rhetoric might yet play a role in the general election.
But it is striking how much less talk there is about the poor than there was eight years ago, when the country was economically uncertain, or in previous eras, when the country felt flush. Even last summer, when Clinton spent several days on a remarkable, Bobby Kennedy-like pilgrimage through impoverished areas from Indian reservations in South Dakota to ghetto neighborhoods in East St. Louis, the administration decided to refer to the effort not as a poverty tour but as a "new markets initiative."
What is happening is partly a logical, policy-driven reaction. Poverty really is lower than it has been in decades, especially for minority groups. The most attractive solution to it--a growing economy is being applied. The people who have been totally left out of this boom often have medical, mental or other problems for which no one has an immediate solution. "The economy has sucked in anyone who has any preparation, any ability to cope with modern life," says Franklin D. Raines, the former director of the Office of Management and Budget who is now head of Fannie Mae. When he and other people who specialize in the issue talk about solutions, they talk analytically and long-term: education, development of work skills, shifts in the labor market, adjustments in welfare reform.
But I think there is another force that has made this a rich era with barely visible poor people. ft is the unusual social and imaginative separation between prosperous America and those still left out. It's simple invisibility, because of increasing geographic, occupational, and social barriers that block one group from the other's view.
In the first paragraph of this passage, the word "straitened" probably means" ______".
The main idea of the passage is that ______.
A the country is enjoying economic growth
B the poor are benefiting from today's good economy
C in the past we were more aware of the poor than we are today
D in the past there were many more poor people than there are today
After reading this passage, you can conclude that ______.
A the relationship between the rich and the poor has changed
B the good economy will soon end
C poverty will be obliterated as a result of increased wealth
D all people benefit from good economic conditions
The author states that one important reason that we do not talk much about poverty is that ______.
A no one knows what to do about it
B poverty really is lower than in the past
C no one has been left out of the current boom
D the president is not concerned about the poor
What is the author's purpose in writing this passage?
A To entertain.
B To tell a story.
C To describe.
D To persuade.
My writing was to develop topics and themes from my Native American background. The experience in my village of Deetziyamah and Acoma Pueblo was readily accessible. My mother was a potter of the well-known Acoma clayware. My father carved figures from wood and did headwork. This was not unusual, as Native American people know; there was always some kind of artistic endeavor that people set themselves to, although they did not necessarily articulate it as "Art" in the sense of Western civilization. One lived and expressed an artful life, whether it was in ceremonial singing and dancing, architecture, painting, speaking or in the way one's social-cultural life was structured. I did so because this was my identity, the substance of who I was, and I wanted to write about what that meant. My desire was to write about the integrity of a Native American identity.
To a great extent my writing has a natural political-cultural bent simply because I was nurtured intellectually and emotionally with an atmosphere of Native American resistance. The Acoma Pueblo, despite losing much of their land and surrounded by a foreign civilization, have not lost sight of their native heritage. This is the factual case with most other Native American peoples, and the clear explanation for this has been the fight-back we have found necessary to wage. At times, in the past, it was outright-armed struggle; currently, it is often in the legal arena, and it is in the field of literature. In 1981, when I was invited to the White House for an event celebrating American poets and poetry, I did not immediately accept the invitation, I questioned myself about the possibility that I was merely being exploited as an Indian, and I hedged against accepting. But then I recalled, the elders going among our people in the poor days of the 1950s, asking for donations--a dollar here and there, a sheep, perhaps a piece of pottery--in order to finance a trip to the nation's capital, to demand justice, to reclaim lost land even though there was only spare hope they would be successful. I went to the White House realizing that I was to do no less than they and those who had fought n the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, and I read my poems and sang songs that were later described as "guttural" by a newspaper. I suppose it is more or less understandable why such a view of Native American literature is held by many, and it is also clear why there should be a political stand taken in my writing and those of my sister and brother Native American writers.
The 1960s and afterward have been a invigorating and liberating period for Native American people. It has been only a little more than twenty years since Native American writers began to write and publish extensively, but we are writing and publishing more and more; we can only go forward. We come from an ageless, continuing oral tradition that informs us of our values, concepts, and notions as native people, and it is amazing how much of this tradition is ingrained so deeply in our contemporary writing, considering the brutal efforts of cultural repression that was not long ago outright U. S. policy. We were not to speak our languages, practice our spiritual beliefs, or accept the values of our past generations; and we were discouraged from pressing for our natural rights as Native American human beings. In spite of the fact that there is to some extent the same repression today, we persist and insist on living, believing, hoping, loving, speaking and writing as Native Americans.
The central idea conveyed in the passage is that ______.
A the author remembers his childhood, especially his parents and the elders in his community, in a very positive way
B a desire to cling to traditional Native American values led the author to write about Native American issues
C art is an important part of Native American life and should be a part of everyone's existence
D the artful nature of Native American life compels the author to explore and worship that heritage
The author the quoted word "guttural" (Para. 2) to ______.
A communicate the newspaper's lack of understanding and respect for the author's presentation
B describe most accurately how the author felt about his White House reading of his poems
C emphasize the dramatic effect on the White House audience of the author's reading of his poems and performance of traditional Pueblo songs
D convey the sound of the Acoma Pueblo language to readers who are unfamiliar with it
Why did the author change his mind to accept the invitation to the White House?
A He was eager to read his poetry to an audience of other poets and literary critics.
B He wanted his writing and the writing of other Native American men and women to take on a more political tone.
C He remembered the sacrifices that his ancestors had made for the privilege of going there, even if only to be ignored.
D He realized that he had not been invited to the event as a representative of Native Americans.
The author's main view in this passage was most influenced by the following assumption that ______.
A the artistic traditions of Native American peoples are similar tc those of European cultures
B all writings produced by Native Americans express, either directly or indirectly, a political position
C the major responsibility of Native American writers is to celebrate and preserve the cultural traditions of their people
D literature can be a powerful tool fro asserting the cultural values and political rights of ethnic groups
The word "spare" (Para. 2) is close in meaning to" ______".
The role of the farmer has always been an important one. Two hundred
years ago, 95% of American workers were farmers. Agriculture is 1. ______.
America's biggest industry. Today, less than 3% of American workers are
farmers. Yet agriculture still is America's biggest industry, it employs more
workers than any other industry, and it produces more food than Americans
can consume enough to make the United States the world's largest importer 2. ______.
of agricultural goods. American farmers used to grow only enough food to
feed their families and animals. Now each farmer grows enough to feed 78
other people. American farmers produce more today because they have to
use modern farm and business methods. This means they have to know more 3. ______.
than ever before. They still learn about soil, the weather, harmless insects, 4. ______.
and plant and animal diseases, but they also must learn about economics,
international trade, and even computers. It has said that farming in America 5. ______.
today is three fourths paper work and one fourth physical labor. Because of
this, American farmers now are able to work for more years. In the past,
most were old and tired of by the time they were about 40. Today , 6. ______.
however, the average age of the American farmer is 48 -five years older
than the averag6 age of other American workers. Almost all new farmers in
the United states have completed at most 12 years of schooling, and many 7. ______.
young Americans study agriculture at a state university. The federal
government provided with the establishment of these schools in a law signed 8. ______.
by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862. Today there is a so-called land-grant
university in each state. The land-grant law also created the cooperative
extension service. This is a series of local .offices around the country that
informs farmers about the latest developments in agriculture. American 9. ______.
farmers also get information from the many agricultural publications in the
United States, Farmers also join organizations which they and their families 10. ______.
can exchange information.
It's common sense that ____________________.(商务信函应以正式文体书写而不是以么人风格书写).
____________________(他因证据不足而被判决无罪), which made his mother so relaxed.
People here still keep their lifestyle today ____________________ (殊不知他们的习惯对他们自己和后代都有害).
____________________(只有积极投身于社会实践) can you accumulate enough working experience.
It's quite strange that ____________________(无论他说什么、做什么都被认为是错的).