Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a resume. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-4, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
America's Brain Drain Crisis
Losing the Global Edge
William Kunz is a self-described computer geek. A more apt description might be computer genius. When he was just 11, Kurtz started writing software programs, and by 14 he had created his own video game. As a high school sophomore in Houston, Texas, he won first prize in a local science fair for a data encryption (遍密码) program he wrote. In his senior year, he took top prize in an international science and engineering fair for designing a program to analyze and sort DNA patterns.
Kunz went on to attend Carnegie Mellon, among the nation's highest-ranked universities in computer science. After college he landed a job with Oracle in Silicon Valley, writing software used by companies around the world.
Kunz looked set to become a star in his field. Then he gave it all up.
Today, three years later, Kunz is in his first year at Harvard Business School. He left software engineering partly because his earning potential paled next to friends who were going into law or business. He also worried about job security, especially as more companies move their programming overseas to lower costs. "Every time you're asked to train someone in India, you think, 'Am I training my replacement?'" Kunz says.
Things are turning out very differently for another standout in engineering, Qing-Shan Jia. A student at Tsinghua University in Beijing, Jia shines even among his gifted cohorts (一群人) at a school sometimes called "the MIT of China". He considered applying to Harvard for his PhD, but decided it wasn't worth it.
His university is investing heavily in cutting-edge research facilities, and attracts an impressive roster of international professors. "I can get a world-class education here and study with world-class scholars," Jia says.
These two snapshots (快照) illustrate part of a deeply disturbing picture. In the disciplines underpinning the high-tech economy—math, science and engineering—America is steadily losing its global edge. The depth and breadth of the problem is clear:
· Several of America's key agencies for scientific research and development will face a retirement crisis within the next ten years.
· Less than 6% of America's high school seniors plan to pursue engineering degrees, down 36% from a decade ago.
· In 2000, 56% of China's undergraduate degrees were in the hard sciences; in the United States, the figure was 17%.
· China will likely produce six times the number of engineers next year than America will graduate, according to Mike
Gibbons of the American Society for Engineering Education. Japan, with half America's population, has minted (铸造) twice as many in recent years.
"Most Americans are unaware of how much science does for this country and what we stand to lose if we can't keep up," says Shirley Ann Jackson, president of Rensselaer polytechnic Institute and chair of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. David Baltimore, president of the California Institute of Technology and a Nobel laureate, puts it bluntly: "We can't hope to keep intact our standard of living, our national security, our way of life, if Americans aren't competitive in science."
The Crisis Americans Created
In January 2001, the Hart-Rudman Commission, tasked with finding solutions to America's major national security threats, concluded that the failures of America's math and science education and America's system of research "pose a greater threat... than any potential conventional war."
The roots of this failure lie in primary and secondary education. The nation that produced most of the great technological advances of the last century now scores poorly in international science testing. A 2003 survey of math and science literacy ranked American 15-year-olds against kids from other industrialized nations. In math, American students came in 24th out of 28 countries; in science, Americans were 24th out of 40 countries, tied with Latvia. This test, in conjunction with others, indicates Americans start out with sufficient smarts—their fourth-graders score well—but they begin to slide by eighth grade, and sink almost to the bottom by high school.
Don't blame school budgets. Americans shell out more than $440 billion each year on public education, and spend more per capita than any nation save Switzerland. The problem is that too many of their high school science and math teachers just aren't qualified. A survey in 2000 revealed that 38% of math teachers and 28% of science teachers in grades 7～12 lacked a college major or minor in their subject area. In schools with high poverty rates, the figures jumped to 52% of math teachers and 32% of science teachers. "The highest predictor of student performance boils down to teacher knowledge," says Gerald Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Association. To California Congressman Buck McKeon, a member of the House Committee on Education and the Workforce, it comes down to this: "How can you pass on a passion to your students if you don't know the subject?"
Perhaps it's no surprise that, according to a 2004 Indiana University survey, 18% of college prep kids weren't taking math their senior year of high school. "When I Compare our high schools to what I see when I'm traveling abroad, I'm terrified for our workforce of tomorrow," Microsoft chairman Bill Gates told a summit of state governors earlier this year. "Our high schools, even when they're working exactly as designed, cannot teach our kids what they need to know today."
The Bush Administration has also proposed cutting the fiscal 2006 budget for research and development in such key federal agencies as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the latter of which acts as a liaison (联络) with industry and researchers to apply new technology.
"Funding cuts are job cuts," says Rep. Vernon J. Ehlers, Republican of Michigan and a member of the Science Committee in the House. Reduced funding has put the squeeze on research positions, further smothering incentives (动机) for students to go into hard science.
What Americans Must Do
Americans have done it before: the Manhattan Project, the technology surge that followed Sputnik. They've demonstrated. that they can commit themselves to daunting goals and achieve them. But they can't minimize the challenges they're facing.
Americans need out-of-the-box thinking, of the sort suggested by experts in a report released in October called "Rising above the Gathering Storm", a study group within the National Academy of Sciences, which included the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine, came up with innovative proposals. Among them are:
· Four-year scholarships for 25,000 undergraduate students who commit to degrees in math, science or engineering, and who qualify based on a competitive national exam;
· Four-year scholarships for 10,000 college students who commit to being math or science teachers, and who agree to teach in a public school for five years after graduation;
· Extended visas for foreign students who earn a math or science PhD in the United States, giving them a year after
graduation to look for employment here. If they find jobs, work permits and permanent residency status would be expedited.
Many experts are also urging that non-credentialed but knowledgeable people with industry experience be allowed to teach. That experiment is already underway at High Tech High in San Diego. Conceived by Gary Jacobs, whose father founded Qualcomm, this charter school stresses a cutting-edge curriculum, whether the classes are on biotechnology or web design. To teach these courses, the school hires industry professionals. High Tech High also arranges internships at robotics labs, Internet start-ups and university research centers.
In just five years, 750 kids have enrolled, three classes have graduated and the vast majority of students have gone on to college. One of the success stories is Jeff Jensen, class of 2005, who was a decidedly apathetic (缺乏兴趣的) student before High Tech High. He is now a freshman at Stanford University on a partial scholarship, planning to study chemistry or medicine.
IBM is one of the companies encouraging its workers to teach. This past September, IBM announced a tuition-assistance plan, pledging to pay for teacher certification as well as a leave of absence for employees who wish to teach in public schools.
The philanthropic (博爱的) arms of corporations are also getting involved. The Siemens Foundation sponsors a yearly math, science and technology competition, considered the Nobel Prize for high school research and a great distiller of American talent. Honeywell spends $2 million each year on science programs geared to middle school students, including a hip-hop touring group that teaches physical science, and a robotics lab program that teaches kids how to design, build and program their own robot. "We've found that if we don't get kids excited about science by middle school, it's too late," says Michael Holland, a spokesperson for Honeywell.
As important as all these initiatives are, they barely begin to take Americans where they need to go. Americans' shortcomings are vast, and time, unfortunately, is working against them.
"The whole world is running a race," says Intel's Howard High, "only we don't know it." No one knows whether or when the United States will relinquish (放弃) its lead in that race. Or how far back in the pack they could ultimately fall. But the first order of business is to recognize what's at stake and get in the game.
Kunz gave up software engineering mainly because he earned less than those in law or business field did.
Only a small percentage of America's high school seniors plan to major in engineering at college.
If Americans aren't competitive in science, they cannot survive the severe competition between developed countries.
College education is to blame for the failure of America's math and science education.
American high school students sink almost to the bottom in a survey of math and science literacy because too many of the high school ______ in America are not qualified.
Cutting budget for science research and development further smothers incentives for American students to ______.
One innovative proposal proposed by some experts is providing ______ for 25,000 qualified undergraduate students.
At High Tech High, ______ are hired to teach courses on biotechnology or web design.
Many companies encourage their employees to ______, with IBM one of them.
Americans' shortcomings in science are vast, and unfortunately ______ is making efforts to defeat them.
A She went to the party without knowing it.
B She was invited to the party.
C She was present for the party.
D She was absent from the party.
A Joan will give out the assignments.
B Joan will speak in the seminar.
C Joan won't be present al the seminar.
D Joan won't sign the petitions.
A Present a new theory to the class.
B Read more than one article.
C Read the book more thoroughly.
D Write a better article for the class.
A Her back hurt during the meeting.
B His support does not mean anything now.
C She agreed that it was a very good meeting.
D The proposal should be sent back to the meeting.
A The library is within walking distance.
B Tae streets are not in good condition.
C The man should get a car instead.
D The man should exercise more.
A Yes, she can study there if she is writing a research paper.
B Yes, but she needs to have the approval of her professor.
C Yes, because she is a senior student.
D No, it's open only to teachers and postgraduates.
A He decided not to cancel his appointment
B His new glasses aren't comfortable.
C He's too busy to get a checkup.
D He has to check when the appointment is.
A His errors were mainly in the reading pan.
B It wasn't very challenging to him.
C It was more difficult than he had expected.
D He made very few grammatical mistakes in his test.
A Leisure sporting activities.
B Average age of athletes.
C Durability of sporting equipment.
D People's preference for sporting activities.
A Target the 18 to 26 year-old age group.
B Sell tennis rackets.
C Carry more athletic shoes.
D Work out a more appealing slogan.
A They have more buying power.
B They have enough time to exercise.
C They tend to enjoy sports more
D They are very health conscious.
A Because it's a way of relaxing himself
B Because he has nothing else to do.
C Because sitcom is very funny.
D Because watching TV is his favorite activity.
A Some interesting commercials.
B Some perfect looking woman complained about the tribulations.
C Some stupid sitcom.
D Some woman went crazy and killed her husband.
A Go out for dinner.
B Watch the documentary with the man
C Go dancing.
D Watch a game show.
A It's because there are many developing nations.
B It's because people use too many man-made materials.
C It's because we have more and more industry.
D It's because we are building more vehicles
C The future of our children.
D Clean air.
A Man knows where the society ts going.
B People don't welcome the rapid development of modern society.
C The speaker is worried about the future of our modem society.
D Man can do nothing about the problem of pollution.
A To interest students in a career in counseling.
B To recruit counselors to work in the placement office.
C To inform students of a university program.
D To convince local merchants to hire college students.
A A job listing.
B A resume.
C A permission slip.
D Their salary requirements.
A Refine their interviewing techniques.
B Arrange their work schedules.
C Select appropriate courses.
D Write cover letters.
A They pay the same wage.
B They involve working outdoors.
C They can be substituted for college students.
D They're part-time.
Millions of young people are creating blogs. Millions of others are reading them. The word "blog" is a short way of saying Web log.
Many popular (1)_________ now offer free, easy ways to create personal Web pages and fill them with writings and pictures: Many young adults use their blogs to write about daily (2) _________ and events in their lives. They also provide a place for people to write their ideas and (3) _________ and react to the ideas of others.
Blogs offer young people a place to show their writings and other forms of (4) _________ . Blogs can also be helpful to connect young people with larger social groups. But some researchers say the (5) _________ harmless blogs can become dangerous when read on the (6)_________ by millions of people all over the world.
People are (7) _________ that students are including information in their blogs that create a threat to their own (8)_________ and safety. (9) ____________________________________. This personal information puts them at risk of being sought out by dangerous people who want to harm them.
One way to avoid these problems is by using programs that permit blogs to be read by "friends only". (11) ____________________________________.
The whole world put attention to the South Asia where the tsunami happened. Before, musicians produced a "sonic tsunami", Wall Sheet analysts (1) "tsunamis" of bad earnings news and Japanese restaurants served "tsunami" sushi rolls. The word was used in dozens of different (2) , but now it likely will appear with just one tragic meaning.
Because of the South Asian tsunami disaster that has killed more than 150,000 people, the Word assumes a(n) (3) solemn use, much the way "Ground Zero", for the site of the World Trade Center, had its meaning (4) from "starting point" to the center of the Sept. 11 tragedy, said Paul Payack, head of Global Language Monitor. Payack said that since the Dec. 26 tsunami, the (5) word has appeared more than 18.5 million times and been the subject of 88.000 articles in major media.
"Before Sept. 11, 2001, the term ground zero was a business cliche meaning starting point, especially when (6) a project over again as in 'going back to ground zero'. That term now represents what many consider to be hallowed ground and its old usage is rarely (7) ," he said.
"In the same manner, we envision that the word tsunami will be the subject of considerable discretion before being used in anything other than a most (8) manner," he said. Payack said thousands of (9) teams around the world use tsunami into their names, like the Tsunami Aquatics Swim team of Livermore, California.
He said there are also some 10,000 products called tsunami, like Tsunami Point-to-Point Wireless Bridges, Tsunami Multimedia Speakers and Tsunami Image Processors. Newspaper headline writers also liked the (10) word, as the Detroit News' "Ford Releases a Tsunami of New Products" and "Heading for the presidency on a tsunami of visions" in London's The Times.
Let us suppose that you are in the position of a parent. Would you allow your children to read any book they wanted to without first checking its contents? Would you take your children to see any film without first finding out whether it is suitable for them? If your answer to these questions is "yes", then you are either extremely permissive. If your answer is "no", then you am exercising your right as a parent to protect your children from what you consider to be undesirable influences. In other words, by acting as a censor yourself, you are admitting that there is a strong case for censorship.
Now, of course, you will say that it is one thing to exercise censorship where children are concerned and quite another to do the same for adults. Children need protection and it is the parents' responsibility to provide it. But what about adults? Aren't they old enough to decide what is good for them? The answer is that many adults are, but don't make the mistake of thinking that all adults are like you. Censorship is for the good of society as a whole. Like the law, censorship contributes to the common good.
Some people think that it is disgraceful that a censor should interfere with works of art. Who is this person, they say, to ban this great book or cut that great film? No one can set himself up as a superior being. But we must remember two things. Firstly, where genuine works of art are concerned, modern censors are extremely liberal in their views—often far more liberal than a large section of the public. Artistic merit is something which censors clearly recognize. And secondly, we must bear in mind that the great proportion of books, plays and films which come before the censor are very far from being "works of art".
When discussing censorship, therefore, we should not confine our attention to great masterpieces, but should consider the vast numbers of publications and films which make up the bulk of the entertainment industry. When censorship laws are relaxed, immoral people are given a license to produce virtually anything in the name of "art". There is an increasing tendency to equate artistic with "pornographic". The vast market for pornography would rapidly be exploited. One of the great things that censorship does is to prevent certain people from making fat profits by corrupting the minds of others. To argue in favor of absolute freedom is to argue in favor of anarchy.
Society would really be the poorer if it deprived itself of the wise counsel and the restraining influence which a censor provides.
Permissive parents would ______.
A let their children read any books they like to
B not let their children see any films they like to
C not let their children read any books without first checking their contents
D let their children see the films with their first checking
The fact that parents check the contents of the book or the film for their children to read or see shows ______.
A the necessity of censorship
B many books and films are bad
C children need their parents to help them understand more
D the parents are permissive
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A Some adults can't tell right from wrong.
B Censorship is compared to the law because both of them perform good service to society as a whole.
C Censors pay attention only m genuine works of art.
D Censorship is necessary because many books, plays and films are far from being "works of art".
What does the word "corrupt" (Line 5. Para. 4) mean?
A Make morally bad.
What would be the best title of this passage?
A Permissive Parents and Responsible Parents.
B Censorship and the Law.
C Censors Value Artistic Merits.
D Censorship Performs Good Service to Society.
One thing the tour books don't tell you about London is that 2.000 of its residents are foxes. As native as the royal family, they fled the city about centuries ago alter developers and pollution moved in. But now that the environment is cleaner, the foxes have come home, one of the many wild animals that have moved into urban areas around the world.
"The number and variety of wild animals in urban areas is increasing," says Gomer Jones, president of the National Institute for Urban Wildlife, in Columbia, Maryland. A survey of the wildlife in New York's Central Park last year tallied the species of mammals, including muskrats, shrews and flying squirrels. A similar survey conducted in the 1890s counted only five species. One of the country's largest populations of raccoons (浣熊) now lives in Washington D.C., and moose (驼鹿) are regularly seen wandering into Maine towns. Peregrine falcons (游隼) dive from the window ledges of buildings in the largest U.S. cities to prey on pigeons.
Several changes have brought wild animals to the cities. Foremost is that air and water quality in many cities has improved as a result of the 1970s' pollution-control efforts. Meanwhile, rural areas have been built up, leaving many animals on the edges of suburbia. In addition, conservationists have created urban wildlife refuges.
The Greater London Council last year spent $750,000 to buy land and build 10 permanent wildlife refuges in the city. Over 1,000 volunteers have donated money and cleared rabble from derelict lots. As a result, pheasants now strut in the East End and badgers scuttle across lawns near the center of town. A colony of rare house martins nests on a window ledge beside Harrods, and one evening last year a fox was seen on Westminster Bridge looking up at Big Ben.
For peregrine falcons, cities are actually safer than rural cliff dwellings. By 1970 the birds were extinct east of the Mississippi because the DDT had made their eggs too thin to support life. That year, ornithologist Tom Cede of Cornell University began rising the birds for release in cities, for cities afforded abundant food and contained none of the peregrine's natural predators.
"Before they were exterminated, some migrated to cities on their own because they had run out of cliff space," Cade says. "To peregrines, buildings are just like cliffs." He has released about 30 birds since 1975 in New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Norfolk, and of the 20 pairs now living in the East, half are urbanites. "A few of the young ones have gotten into trouble by falling down chimneys and crashing into window-glass, but overall their adjustment has been successful.
The first paragraph suggests that ______.
A environment is crucial for wildlife
B tour books are not always a reliable source of information
C London is a city of fox
D foxes are highly adaptable to environment
The selection is primarily concerned with ______.
A wildlife of all kinds returning to large cities to live
B falcons in New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Norfolk
C moose stumbling into plate-glass storefronts
D foxes returning to London
In the 4th paragraph the pheasants, badgers, and martins etc. are mentioned to ______.
A explain their living habit
B make known their habitat
C show the endeavors of Londoners to make the city habitable for wildlife
D encourage volunteers to do something for the species
The main idea of paragraph 3 is ______.
A that air and water quality has improved in the cities
B why wildlife likes the noise and commotion in the cities
C that wildlife refuges have been built in the cities
D why wildlife is returning to cities
Cities make good homes for peregrine falcons because they provide ______.
A bountiful nesting areas, abundant food, and rainwater control basins
B abundant food, buildings that resemble cliffs, and no natural predators
C large buildings with chimneys, other wildlife, and well-lighted nesting areas
D abundant food, chimneys, rubble, and window sills
Most people would be (1) by the high quality of medicine (2) to most Americans. There is a lot of specialization, a great deal of (3) to the individual, a (4) amount of advanced technical equipment, and (5) effort not to make mistakes because of the financial risk which doctors and hospitals must (6) in the courts if they (7) things badly.
But the Americans are in a mess. The problem is the way in (8) health care is organized and (9) . (10) to public belief it is not just a free competition system. The private system has been joined a large public system, because private care was simply not (11) the less fortunate and the elderly.
But even with this huge public part of the system, (12) this year will eat up 84.5 billion dollars—more than 10 per cent of the U.S. budget—large numbers of Americans are left (13) . These include about half the 11 million unemployed and those who fail to meet the strict limits (14) income fixed by a government trying to make savings where it can.
The basic problem, however, is that there is no central control (15) the health system. There is no (16) to what doctors and hospitals charge for their services, other than what the public is able to pay. The number of doctors has shot up and prices have climbed. When faced with toothache, a sick child, or a heart attack, all the unfortunate person concerned can do is (17) up.
Two-thirds of the population (18) covered by medical insurance. Doctors charge as much as they want (19) that the insurance company will pay the bill.
The rising cost of medicine in the U.S. is among the most worrying problems facing the country. In 1981 the country's health bill climbed 15.9 per cent—about twice as fast as prices (20) general.
A run into
B come into
A to finance
C the finance
D to be financed
A looking for
B looking into
C looking after
D looking over
A to pay
C to be paid
D to have paid
A is being
C have been
B to know
C they know
Regardless of all the difficulties, ______ (我们会尽力争取我们的权利).
The order from the commander was that the troops ______ (立即开拔去前线).
Science to the human mind is ______ (正如水或空气之于身体).
For the past two years, ______ (我一直忙着准备考试).
Of all the people I know, ______ (没有人比格林先生更值得我尊敬).