Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition with the title of Living Expenditure of a Developed Country, analyzing changes in people's living expenditure of a developed country. You should write at least 150 words following the outline and chart given below.
|Transportation and Communication||10.2%||10%||10.6%||11.6%||12.8%||13.2%|
|Fuel, Light and Water Charges||5.1%||5.1%||5.4%||5.8%||6.2%||6.3%|
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-4, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Around the World in Eight Megabytes
When Microsoft put the original Flight Simulator program onto the market, in the early 1980s, I tried it for a while and then gave up. I had thought it would be fun to "take off" from Meigs Field, the airport on the Chicago lakefront where the simulator was programmed to start, and fly between the skyscrapers of the city toward whatever destination I chose. But the on- screen scenery turned out to be sketchy and uninteresting. Worse, I had no idea how to "land" the plane, at Meigs or anywhere else, and the program was not much help in teaching me. After ten or twenty flights that ended mainly with nosedives into the lake or countryside, I decided I could have more fun in other ways.
A dozen years later I became interested in learning to fly (and land) real airplanes, and I thought I should look at simulators again. There were now a range of programs, which were much more effective in teaching flying skills--or at least certain skills. They had also become a form of entertainment and virtual adventure captivating enough to attract vast numbers of users worldwide. According to Guinness World Records 2001, Microsoft's Flight Simulator had sold a total of 21 million copies by June of 1999.
Simulators' success is certainly deserved. Not many people fly real airplanes; fewer than 650,000 Americans are licensed pilots. But a larger group probably would like to fly. And even people who have almost no interest in flying (surely everybody finds it a little bit exciting to pretend to zoom through the air) or who view computer games as inherently creepy would find it hard to ignore the best modem versions. On a big, high-resolution computer screen you can find yourself facing all amazingly exact rendition of a Learjet cockpit, flying low over the Grand Canyon at dawn, with flashes of lightning visible in the distance, as you listen to air-traffic controllers direct you to the Flagstaff airport. You can take off in a pontoon plane from a lagoon in Bali, fly over paddies on the terraced hillsides, and then head toward java's volcanic craters. You can approach Ayers Rock, in the center of Australia, and watch shadows move across it as the sun goes down. You can indulge in much of the visual romance of flying, without the time, expense, and training required to pilot a real plane.
These riveting effects are the result of an intriguing de facto division of labor. The programs themselves are ail commercial products, from Microsoft and a number of small firms. But a wide variety of add-ons and improvements come from tens of thousands of hobbyists around the world, who spend countless hours polishing or improving some aspect of a program--and then post their work on the Internet for others to share. The flight-sim culture is a delightful reminder of a long-forgotten era, somewhere back in the 1990s, when people were excited about creating software for the new things it would let them do, not simply as a means of gaining market share.
The flight-sim market resembles the rest of the software business mainly in that the most popular offering is from Microsoft. The current version of Microsoft's program is Flight Simulator 2000, or FS2000, which computer discounters offer for about $50. (A "professional" version costs about $70. It includes more simulated airplanes and a larger number of places whose scenery is presented in extra-realistic detail.) With FS2000 and most other programs you can "fly" from practically any point on earth to any other; the differences among the programs lie mostly in the degree of scenic detail, plus certain aspects of the airplanes' look and performance. With all these programs you can also specify the weather conditions through which you'll pass on any particular trip: clouds, wind, turbulence, rain. The fanciest programs let you download the real-time weather for your route, from aviation sites on the Internet. Then you can see what it would be like to pilot a plane from Buffalo to Detroit through the blustery night weather occurring just now. As with other Microsoft products, FS2000's strengths are related to its role as the industry standard. More hobbyists develop new airplanes or bits of scenery for this program than for the others. Its main shortcoming is its slow "frame rate" , which can result in a jerky on-screen image if the program is run on what is now considered a slow computer or one without an up-to-date video-display card.
Although in many software categories Microsoft's product has become dominant, in flight sims there are still lively alternatives. The main ones are Flight Unlimited (FU3), by Electronic Arts; Fly! 2K, by Gathering of Developers; Pro Pilot 99, abandoned by its previous owner, Sierra Software, but being revived by ETC Interactive; and X-Plane, developed and sold by one Austin Meyer, of Columbia, South Carolina. Each of these programs has not only dedicated users, but also a reserve army of hobbyists creating enhancements and add-ons. Devotees discuss the programs on the main flight-sim Web sites, which included avsim, com and flightsim, com, and the Internet newsgroup.
The good parts of all the programs keep getiing better, because of those hobbyists and their burgeoning offerings on the major Web sites. Thousands of scenery supplements are available free for FS2000, and hundreds for the other programs. The big step toward dramatically more- realistic-looking scenery came when FS2000 was released, in the fall of 1999. Previous versions of the program had presented the world basically as a flat surface, onto which polygons representing mountains were plunked down. FS2000 introduced a far more accurate "terrain mesh" system. Real-word data from satellites and geodetic surveys are mapped onto a topographic model of the earth's surface, with each square kilometer rendered at its actual average elevation. The "software developer kit" that Microsoft offers free with FS2000 allows hobbyists to apply the same approach and create much-finer detail using smaller geographic increments.
Other add-ons, most of which are free, let you fly different kinds of planes--the Spirit of St. Louis, Air Force One, the space shuttle. Hobbyists, largely in Europe, have created virtual airlines, with whole fleets of imaginary Airbuses and DC-10s that fly on schedule from London to Berlin and from Amsterdam to New York's JFK. I have visited a Web site run by a virtual air traffic controller. Flight-sim users around the world send him their flight plans--say, Los Angeles to San Francisco, departing at noon. He tells them when they're cleared for takeoff and follows their route by way of Internet messages. A large number of add-on planes are exquisitely detailed representations of Boeing747s or 777s, with all the dials and controls in working order. With a good computer monitor, the right scenery add-ons, and the joystick and pedals, you can feel like an airline captain instead of one of the passengers habitually grousing in the back of the plane.
The exhilarating part of flight sims is taking off in a certain direction and seeing what wonders unfold beneath you. This, to me, is the engrossing part of real flying, too. You head east out of Seattle, and soon enough there's Idaho, and the open range of Montana, and the beginning of the Midwest. Everyone understands the concept of how the states fit together, but seeing them in one continuous band, from an altitude low enough to make out individual farmhouses clustered in the prairie, yet high enough to see the way rivers and ridgelines snake around communities, is very different from looking at a map. And to take off from Charles de Gaulle, circle the monuments of Paris, and then head north until the cliffs of Dover come into view is something I don't expect ever to do in a real airplane. The cliffs looked beautiful, just a moment ago, on my computer screen.
The author loved Flight Simulator Program as soon as it had been put on to the market.
12 years later, the author decided to look at Flight Simulator again.
The Flight Simulator succeeded by chance.
The program of Flight Simulator was produced by Microsoft and five other small firms.
After spending countless hours improving some aspect of a program, the hobbyist of Flight Simulator then ______.
FS2000 refers to ______.
The main shortcoming of FS2000 is its ______.
Alternatives of Microsoft's Flight Simulator include ______.
The good parts of all the programs keep getting better because of ______.
The exciting part of both Flight Simulator and real flying is ______.
A The man attended the concert but didn't like it.
B The man was sorry to miss the football game.
C The man is more interested in football than in classical music.
D The man was sorry that he didn't attend the concert.
A Singing loudly.
B Listening to music.
D Talking on the phone.
A She can't receive any calls.
B She can't make any calls.
C She can do nothing with the phone.
D She can't repair the phone.
A Tom is very responsible.
B Tom's words aren't reliable.
C What Tom said is true.
D Torn is not humorous at all.
A How to use a camera.
B How to use a washer.
C How to use a keyboard.
D How to use a tape recorder.
A They should put the meeting to an end.
B They should hold another meeting to discuss the matter.
C She would like to discuss another item.
D She wants to discuss the issue again later.
A He believes the Browns have done a sensible thing.
B He doesn't think the Browns should move to another place.
C He doesn't think the Browns' investment is a wise move.
D He believes it is better for the Browns to invest later.
A He may convert it and use it as a restaurant.
B He may pull it down and build a new restaurant.
C He may rent it out for use as a restaurant.
D He may sell it to the owner of a restaurant.
A Mating habits of squid and octopus.
B The evolution of certain form of sea life.
C The study of marine shells.
D Survival skills of sea creatures.
A He didn't understand the lecture.
B He wants to borrow her notes next week.
C He needs help with a makeup exam,
D He was sick and unable to attend.
A Some sea creatures developed backbones.
B The first giant squid was captured.
C Some sea creatures shed their shells.
D Sea life became more intelligent.
A She has always believed they exist.
B She heard about them in New Zealand.
C Stories about them may be based on giant squid.
D The instructor mentioned them in the lecture.
A To choose a topic for a term paper.
B To type some research materials.
C To find material not available at the main library.
D To learn to use the computers there.
A An analysis of early presidential elections.
B A comparison of political journals.
C The use of computers in calculating election results.
D The impact of television on recent presidential elections.
A It is quite general.
B Most of the information he needs will be found in newspapers,
C She thinks he should change it.
D It should take a very short time to find material on it.
A Putting a roof on a barn.
B Harvesting water reeds.
C Using stone as a building material.
D Daily farm operations.
A Clay tiles.
B Slate or stone.
C Wooden shingles.
D Reeds or straw.
A It's manufactured to be strong.
B It bends without breaking.
C Thatchers nail it down securely.
D The winds can pass through it easily.
A If people had more time to learn how to do it.
B If its cost went down.
C If it could make buildings more attractive.
D If people realized its many advantages.
A The coffee market in Boston.
B The role of supermarkets in the coffee business.
C A new trend in the United States.
D The advertising of a new product.
A Gourmet coffee is less expensive.
B Regular brands of coffee have too much caffeine.
C Gourmet coffee tastes better.
D Gourmet coffee is grown in the United States.
A They will run out of coffee.
B They will successfully compete with gourmet coffee sellers.
C They will introduce new regular brands of coffee.
D They will lose some coffee business.
A How to analyze photographic techniques.
B How to define photography.
C How Alfred Stieglitz contributed to the history of photography.
D Whether photography is superior to other art forms.
A They were influenced by his background in engineering.
B They were very expensive to take.
C They were among the first taken under such condition.
D Most of them were of poor quality.
A He thought the copying process took too long.
B He considered each photograph to be unique.
C He didn't have the necessary equipment for reproduction.
D He didn't want them to be displayed outside of his home.
President Clinton later today joins (1)__________ Presidents Ford, Carter and Bush at "the president's summit for America's future" (2)__________ at recruiting one million volunteer tutors to provide after-school, weekend and summer reading help for up to three million children. Mr. Cliton will ask Congress this coming week for nearly three (3)__________ dollars to fund a five-year program called "America Reads".The program would fund the (4)__________ efforts of 20 thousand reading (5)__________ and it would also give (6)__________ to help parents help children read by the third grade, or about age eight. During his Saturday radio (7)__________ , the president explained why the (8)__________ is important. "We need 'America Reads' and we need it now. studies show what if the fourth-graders fail to read well, (9) ____________________________________________But, 40 percent of them still can't read at a basic level."Volunteer tutors, who provide community service in exchange for college funding, are being used in literacy and tutoring programs. (10) ____________________________________________.The president says many of the Philadelphia summit's corporate sponsors will recruit tutors. (11) ____________________________________________.
From a world of silence, deaf percussionist Evelyn Glennie brought some of the world's most beautiful music to the church of St. Paul and St. Peter the Great at Chichester on Monday evening.
This attractive young Scottish lass has proved that what many would consider a debilitating disability was no handicap at all as she hypnotised her audience with a talented performance at this Chichester Festivities concert. She demonstrated her art with pieces on the xylophone, the marimba, the snare drum, and the timpani.
With accompaniment from pianist Robert Howle, this evening with Evelyn Glennie was one of those little gems the festival seems to pull out to surprise and delight us each year. Displaying an easy and relaxed attitude and a keen sense of humour--with many jokes directed against herself (" This is the part I find most difficult," she told us as she tuned the timpani) Evelyn played some haunting works specially written for xylophone, such as her own inspiring "A Little Prayer" and the lilting Scottish tune "Tween Heaven and Sea".
She also "stole" items from the repertoire of other instruments--the exciting "Czarda" more usually heard on violin, "Dreaming" by Schumann, "Maple Leaf Rag" by Joplin, and Chopin's "Black Key Study", all works written for the piano but given an extra dimension on the xylophone.
The audience was foxed completely as they tried to clap along to snare drum demonstration, a "mummy and daddy open roll", and there was no falling asleep during the dramatic sonata for Timpani by Beck--as Evelyn said herself, "It may not be everyone's cup of tea, but it isn't very often that you see a solo timpanist, and a female one at that!"
Evelyn Glennie may not have been able to hear the applause, but she must surely have seen the warm smiles and happy faces of an audience to which she endeared herself with a charming personality and uncanny instrumental ability.
Some of the word's most beautiful music mentioned in the passage refers to ______.
Evelyn was ______ when she performed in the concert.
Why the author use the word "stole" in Paragraph 5?
By saying "It may not be everyone's cup of tea" , Evelyn meant" ______".
The audience loved Evelyn because of her ______.
In only two decades Asian Americans have become the fastest--growing U. S. minority. As their children began moving up through the nation's schools, it became clear that a new class of academic achievers was emerging. Their achievements are reflected in the nation's best universities, where mathematics, science and engineering departments have taken on a decidedly Asian character. This special liking for mathematics and science is partly explained by the fact that Asian-American students who began their education abroad arrived in the U.S. with a solid grounding in mathematics but little or no knowledge of English. They are also influenced by the promise of a good job after college. Asians feel there will be less unfair treatment in areas like mathematics and science because they will be judged more objectively. And the return on the investment in education is more immediate in something like engineering than with an arts degree.
Most Asian-American students owe their success to the influence of parents who are determined that their children take full advantage of what the American educational system has to offer. An effective measure of parental attention is homework. Asian parents spend more time with their children than American parents do, and it helps. Many researchers also believe there is something in Asian culture that breeds success, such as ideals that stress family values and emphasize education.
Both explanations for academic success worry Asian Americans because of fears that they feed a typical racial image. Many can remember when Chinese, Japanese and Filipino immigrants were the victims of social isolation. Indeed, it was not until 1952 that laws were laid down giving all Asian immigrants the right to citizenship.
While making tremendous achievements at college, Asian-American students ______.
A feel they are mistreated because of limited knowledge of English
B are afraid that their academic successes bear a strong Asian character
C still worry about unfair treatment in society
D generally feel it a shame to have to depend on theft parents
What are the major factors that determine the success of Asian Americans?
A A solid foundation in basic mathematics and Asian culture.
B Hard work and intelligence.
C Parents' help and a limited knowledge of English.
D Asian culture and the American educational system.
Few Asian-American students major in human sciences mainly because ______.
A their English is not good enough
B they are afraid they might meet with unfair judgment in these areas
C there is a wide difference between Asian and Western cultures
D they know little about American culture and society
Why do "both explanations" (Line 1, Paragraph 3) worry Asian Americans?
A They are afraid that they would again be isolated from American society in general.
B People would think that Asian students rely on their parents for success.
C Asian Americans would be a threat to other minorities.
D American academic achievements have taken on too strong an Asian character.
The author's tone in this passage is ______.
The most important step in developing an effective campaign, and the step which must come before all others, is to define the objectives of the campaign with greatest possible clarity. Does the company wish to attract new investors? Does it seek to acquire a company abroad? Is a new product to be introduced? Are new government regulations threatening the company's profitability? Only after the fundamental needs of a corporation have been established can the basic objective for a corporate program be isolated; without such a clearly defined objective the campaign will have little effect.
Note that we have spoken of "an objective," not a set of objectives. One cannot create a favorable climate among the financial community, emphasize one's concern for the environment, seek to attract new employees by the creation of a progressive image, give direct support to sales staff, and emphasize social responsibility, all in a single campaign. A scattering of diverse messages will confuse the reader and in the end he will absorb nothing.
After the prime reason for investment in the campaign has been decided upon, the second step is to collect all the information that one wishes to convey to the selected audiences. Since there is only objective for tile carnpaign, one assumes trial tile audience has clearly been clearly identified during the selection of the objective.
The third step involves the selection of the best possible media to be used in the campaign. It is alarming how many advertising experts first create the campaign and then select the media. The print media are quite distinct from such media as radio and television in their advertising capabilities. Even within the print media there are critical differences in style and approach which must be noted by anyone designing an advertisement for printing in a newspaper as opposed to a magazine. Magazine advertising in turn is not one unified field, for there are many different types of magazines and journals directed to entirely different audiences.
The fourth and last step is to find a suitable creative approach. If the objective is to develop a receptive climate among the financial community, for example, it would be a mistake to work with too much illustration and too few detailed data, too many clever words and too few facts and figures. In a campaign aimed at fixing in the consciousness of the general public an image of the company as a progressive and innovative leader in its field, on the other hand, it might be appropriate to emphasize dramatic illustrations and not take the chance of boring the audience with facts.
According to the author, the most important step in developing an effective campaign is ______.
A to select the best possible media
B to create a good environment
C to collect some information
D to define the objectives
It can be inferred from the second paragraph that ______.
A one objective will confuse the selected audience
B a set of objectives will help to attract new employees
C one objective will make the selected audience know what to do
D a set of objectives will help the selected audience know more about the campaign
"Print media" in the passage (Paragraph 4) probably refers to" ______".
A radio and television
B newspaper and radio
C magazine and television
D newspaper and magazine
What does the author imply by saying "too much illustration and too few detailed data" (Paragraph 5)?
A Explain too much with no figures and facts.
B Emphasize the details without illustration.
C Explain nothing about the objectives.
D Illustrate too few detailed data.
This passage tells us how to ______.
A find a suitable creative approach
B develop an effective campaign
C create a progressive image
D establish the objectives
The latest project is to take a city of around half a
million inhabitants and discovers exactly what raw materials 1. ______
go into it and what go out. The aim is to find out how much
of these raw materials could be provided whether a plant for 2. ______
recycling waste were built just outside the city. This plant would
recycle not only metal such as steel, lead but copper, but also 3. ______
paper and rubber as well as. 4. ______
Another new project is being set off to discover the best 5. ______
ways of sorting and separating the rubbish. When this project
is complete, the rubbish will be processing like this: first, it will 6. ______
pass through sharp metal bars which will tear open the plastic
bags on which rubbish is usually packed; then it will pass through 7. ______
a powerful fan separate the lightest elements from the heavy 8. ______
solids; after that grounders and rollers break up everything what 9. ______
can be broken. Finally the rubbish will pass under magnets,
which will remove the bits of iron and steel; the rubber and
plastic will then sorted out in the final stage. 10. ______
The first full scale giant recycling plants are, perhaps, fifteen
years away. Indeed, with the growing cost of transporting rubbish
to more distance dumps, some big cities will be forced to build
their own recycling plants before long.
According to our records, ___________________ (之所以会出现这样的问题，只不过是因为你没有按照手册中的说明操作).
There is no question that ___________________ (当产品的供应大过需求时，价格就会下降).
If the world remains peaceful, ___________________ (各国就得要作出最大的努力去限制地区冲突).
Readers will have difficulty ___________________ (理解含意模棱两可的句子，因此你必须重写这个句子).
The scientists have discovered that ___________________ (这种物质的反应速度是那种物质的3倍).