Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition with the title of Leisure Time, a report for a university lecturer. You should write at least 150 words following the chart below which shows the amount of leisure time enjoyed by men and women of different employment status.
Leisure time in a typical week: by sex and employment status, 1998—1999
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-4, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Keeping the Net Secure
On September 11 traditional telephone providers did a heroic job of struggling to restore service. When the World Trade Center towers fell, they severely damaged a Verizon central office with 350,000 voice lines and 3.5 million data circuits carrying the financial information that is the lifeblood of Wall Street firms. Verizon employees and those of many other telecommunications carders worked night and day, alongside the firemen, the police, and volunteers, at their own recovery job. In about a week they had rerouted some two million data circuits, restored switches, and installed temporary power supplies. The other 1.5 million circuits originated in buildings that no longer exist.
In the days after the attack the number of voice calls in the five boroughs of New York City doubled, from the normal 115 million a day to more than 230 million. For the next six days Verizon waived charges for its pay phones in Manhattan. On a single day following the disaster residents placed some 22,000 local calls free of charge from regular sidewalk pay phones below Canal Street, and Williams Communications switched five million voice calls in the metropolitan area-three times the average daily volume. AT&T's long-distance volume jumped from a weekday average of about 300 million domestic voice calls to more than 431 million on September 11, the busiest weekday ever across AT&T's domestic voice network.
But despite the efforts to keep them in operation, under the extraordinary pressure of September 11 the traditional voice-telecommunications systems in the New York area and the Washington, D.C. area--both wire and wireless--were significantly overtaxed. In East Coast cities cell-phone networks could not keep up with demand. Many long-distance calls inbound to New York City were blocked, in part to reserve circuits for outgoing calls. On that day the Internet proved its value as an essential part of the modem communications system.
More than half of America now uses the Internet. Globally, users number more than 300 million. Virtually all large businesses use the public Internet or private versions of the same technology to conduct their most important activities. So it was not surprising--although it was staggering--to see that on September 11 more than 1.2 billion instant messages were sent by AOL users alone. Slipping past the congested voice networks onto the PC screens of friends and family around the globe were the ties that bind us in the modem world: "R U OK?" "ALRIGHT? “ “U THERE?"
As voice networks blocked incoming calls to New York in order to relieve congestion, some carders pushed their voice traffic over the Internet. ITXC, which specializes in Internet voice services, saw its domestic wholesale business double on September 11 as carriers searched for new channels of communication; Yahoo's PC to Phone calling service increased by 59 percent. The performance of these voice-over-IP services suggests that in only a handful of years most voice traffic is likely to be carded on the Internet.
Why did the Internet work so well in the face of huge volume? Because its "distributed" technology is inherently robust. "Normal" phone connections, whether by means of wired line networks or by wireless cellular networks, open a specific circuit, or channel, connecting the person who is called and the caller. Just as if a superhighway lane were opened for one car only, the circuit remains dedicated to the conversation even if no one is speaking at the moment. If too many circuits are requested at one time, the system blocks calls.
In contrast, Internet messages don't travel on designated circuits. Instead, the messages are coded in is and Os, and then disassembled into packets of data. The packets go out from the PC down the phone line and into the maze of interconnected fibers that envelops every metropolitan area of every developed country in the world. Like cars on a superhighway, packets share lanes on the Net.
Each packet contains a destination address. As the packet moves into the maze, it encounters a router that selects the next step in the network. If the router senses congestion on one route, it selects another. The AOL instant-message packets could work their way around the jams and outage of the voice network and find their destinations in seconds.
One lesson from September 11 is that in order to maintain an effective communications system in the face of any calamity, we should promote and protect the Internet as a primary network, encouraging the private sector and using the resources of the public sector to make it faster, more robust, ubiquitous, and better integrated with other media. This policy would be consistent with the Internet's original development as an aspect of national security.
Not many creators of Internet technology or leaders of Internet companies have been seriously interested in world affairs. Indeed, only yesterday many people imagined, naively, that the rise of the medium meant the end of government, the triumph of libertarian visions, and the dawning of a new age of spontaneous self-organization. In the long run the Net's emphasis on liberty can be fused with the needs of a civil equitable, ordered state. But in the short run we need practical steps to help keep the Internet secure. The world's citizens, businesses, and governments should come together to take two actions.
First, Internet access should be made truly global. In less developed countries this means expanding communications systems so that more people have exposure to and access to information from the outside world. Obviously, communications technology does not by itself end conflict or convert nations to democracy. But it helps, and those goals are easier to reach with a modem communications system than without one. However our current war against terrorism ends, along the way the United States and its allies will undoubtedly make a variety of economic promises to the Central Asian states whose support we need. It would be better to direct aid toward thought-out goals than to grant it slapdash. A $ 10 billion investment fund for communications improvements throughout the developing world, managed by an independent board and funded half by private institutions and half by governments, would be a wise use of our resources.
In developed countries universal access means ensuring that businesses and citizens can all get high-speed connections to the Internet, much as they now have universal dial-tone access to the traditional telephone system. The United States has a long history of subsidizing the growth of a democratically available communications system. In keeping with the established universal service policy, business and suburban customers of telephone services are "overcharged" some $ 30 billion each year in order to subsidize basic telephone rates for rural customers. Diverting $ 10 billion of this universal-service funding could eventually make broadband service available on a near universal basis. Consumers could draw on a federal fund for whichever competing service they chose. The fund would pay a high proportion of the total cost for poor and rural users, a low one or none at all for rich users. Andy Grove, the chairman of Intel, recently called for a similar investment plan.
Second, the Internet's defenses need to be strengthened. The networks that compose its backbone should be encouraged with strong incentives to develop redundant interconnection points and diverse paths. The Internet's conceptual design makes it inherently resilient, but its physical structure and hardware need to be more secure than they are now. The one or two dozen essential crossroads of the Internet are basically collections of computers in buildings. These are vital nodes of our national security, and they ought to be as carefully protected as our military installations. The Internet has a rising number of co-location facilities where many fiber cables are aggregated. If any of them goes down, traffic can be interrupted for long periods. This became clear last summer in Baltimore, when a train derailment damaged a substantial fiber link and affected the flow of Internet traffic around the globe.
Every essential node should have a backup. Internet messages are now carried mainly on fiber-optic systems. These systems should be backed up by microwave and satellite-transmission systems.
The terrorists did not directly target our communications networks, but those networks are an integral part of the democratic capitalism that they did attack. And we can use those networks to help fight back.
The data circuits which had been damaged on September 11 were rerouted more than a half in about a week.
There are fewer voice calls in New York in the days after the attack.
In all coastal cities, cell phone net works could not keep up with demand.
More than half of Americans now use the Internet.
Some carriers pushed their voice traffic over the Internet because ______.
The system blocks calls when ______.
We should promote and protect the Internet as a primary network in order to ______.
The second action which should be taken to keep the Internet secure is ______.
A substantial fiber link damaged by a train derailment affected ______.
Fiber-optic system should be backed up by ______.
A They should meet another time this week.
B She won't be busy this week.
C She is angry that the man doesn't wait for her.
D There won't be another time available for them in this week to meet.
A Try the train ticket instead.
B Book an air ticket in advance.
C Wait for others to cancel their booking.
D Buy a ticket at a higher price.
A The library has already chosen some people to work there.
B She is going to give the man a job offer.
C The library is looking for more applicants.
D The man should hurry up.
A He didn't call the hotel in advance.
B He will leave immediately.
C He refuses to take the room the hotel offers.
D He dislikes the hotel.
A She goes out for shopping.
B She is a good student.
C She always talks on the phone.
D She is good at cooking.
A He forgets the name of the dentist.
B He also suffers from toothache now.
C He suggested the woman to see a dentist a week ago.
D He has been busy all the week.
A Lend the novel to the man.
B Ask Alice to see if she can lend the novel to the man.
C Buy the novel from Alice.
D Visit Alice in the hospital
A The drama wasn't interesting at all.
B His watch is expensive.
C He had another appointment last night.
D The woman should have been there last night.
A To borrow his book.
B To talk about the term paper.
C To invite him to go canoeing.
D To ask him out for dinner.
A Food for the Friday night cookout.
B Tent for sleeping out.
C Drinks for all day Saturday,
D A bathing suit and a sleeping bag.
A Eating out.
A The woman's.
C The man's.
D The trip leaders'.
A The food in the kitchen.
B The TV Programme.
C The roommate of the man.
D The coming exam.
A Because they are not friends.
B Because he failed last exam.
C Because they are not in the same class.
D Because she has never told him about that.
A Because it's too late.
B Because he doesn't know her.
C Because she is the best student.
D Because she is a friend of the woman.
A Nothing about the mountains.
B The real experience of being in the mountains.
C Mountain climbing with family members.
D Skills of rock climbing.
A Mountain climbing.
B Rock climbing.
A Because the mountain is over 12,000 feet high.
B Because he had no experience since he left college.
C Because his wife wasn't good at mountain climbing.
D Because his children were too young.
A Because it takes time before your brain realizes that you're full.
B Because the slower you eat, the less you absorb.
C Because it's healthier to eat slowly.
D Because it helps to hum the fat in your body.
D More than three.
A Because men are seldom seen in the forest.
B Because tigers are afraid of something.
C Because men are not edible.
D Because men shout aloud.
A The man seems to have no back and from the side can barely be seen.
B The man is smaller than the tiger itself.
C The man smells bad.
D The man looks very much like a deer.
A Because men are less likely to be well armed when they bend.
B Because men seem more obedient when they bend.
C Because men more closely resembles a medium-sized deer when they bend.
D Because men are cutting grass when they bend.
The origins of bottled water can be (1)________ back to the earliest (2)________ . Well aware of water's health facts, the Romans searched for and developed sources as they set about (3)________ their empire.
The spa movement that began to (4)________ in Europe in the eighteenth century had its origins in baths dating from Roman times. Science and (5)________ touted natural mineral water's (6)________ effects for bathing, showering and drinking. For example, as early as 1760, people came to Contrexeville in France for a cure to (7)________ kidney stones. The spa tradition was also developing in many other countries, including Italy and the Americas.
Cold spa waters were bottled for the first time in France in the 1850s. The legal permit to bottle Vittel Grande Source natural mineral water was (8)________ as early as 1855.
(9) ___________________________________. In 1845, Poland Spring water was bottled for sale in threegallon demi-johns. In South America, Sao Lourenco bottled water appeared in Brazil in 1890. (10) ___________________________________the haute bourgeoisie, captains of industry, politicians, royalty, and so on. It was bottled in glass or stoneware, with porcelain or cork stoppers. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, (11) ___________________________________. Bottling methods changed as consumption spread, and by the mid-twentieth century, global production had climbed to several hundred million bottles.
A child who has once been pleased with a tale likes, as a rule, to have it retold in identically the same words, but this should not lead parents to treat printed fairy stories as sacred texts. It is always much better to tell a story than to read it out of a book and, if a parent can produce an improvement on the printed text, so much the better.
A charge made against fairy tales is that they harm the child by frightening him or arousing his sadistic impulses. To prove the latter, one would have to show in a controlled experiment that children who have read fairy stories were more often guilty of cruelty than those who had not. On the whole, their symbolic verbal discharge seems to be rather a safety valve than an incitement to overt action. As to fears, there are, I think, well-authenticated cases of children being dangerously terrified by some fairy story. Often, however, this arises from the child having been told the story on only one occasion. Familiarity with the story by repetition turns the pain of fear into the pleasure of a fear faced and mastered.
There are also people who object to fairy stories on the grounds that they are not objectively tree, that giants, witches, two-headed dragons, magic carpets, etc., do not exist; and that, instead of indulging his fantasies in fairy tales, the child should be taught how to adapt to reality by studying history and mechanics. I find such people, I must confess, so unsympathetic and peculiar that I do not know how to argue with them. If their cases were sound, the world should be full of madmen attempting to fly from New York to Philadelphia on a broomstick or covering a telephone with kisses in the belief that it was their enchanted girlfriend.
No fairy story ever claimed to be a description of the external world and no sane child has ever believed that it was.
The author considers that a fairy story is more effective when it is ______ by the parents.
If experiment proved that children who have read fairy stories were more often guilty of ______ cruelty than those who had not read such stories, it would mean that ______.
From the passage, we learn that great fear can be stimulated in a child when a story is told ______ time(s).
According to the passage, the advantage claimed for repeating fairy stories to young children is that it ______.
Some others think children should study history and mechanics rather than reading fairy stories because they think ______.
The ownership of pets brings a variety of benefits that the uninitiated would never believe. For every tale of shredded cushion, flattened plants, chew slippers, there is another testimonial of intelligence, sympathy and undying devotion. Now the growing body of research into the medical and social advantages of pet ownership has confirmed what pet owners have always intuitively known: that pets are not just loving companions but actually do us good. Researchers have established the value of pets in soothing and reassuring humans, particularly when ill, lonely or in distress. Perhaps the unquestioning love and approval pets give us is something we don't always get from our human nearest and dearest.
Our makeshift understanding psychology leads many of us to view very close relationships with pets with suspicion. Childless couples in particular give rise to speculation, but a consultant in animal behavior says, "There is no evidence that a pet is a direct substitute for child." And while many adults feel foolish if caught talking to their pets, they have no need to. The experts say you cannot have' a close relationship with a pet without treating it as a person and that talking to a pet is not unhealthy--simply a way of establishing camaraderie.
The shaking helplessness of a young puppy or fluffy kitten stirs protective instincts deep within us and prompts many parents to buy pets for their children in the hope of instilling a sense of responsibility and caring and acceptance of the facts of life and death. Hut animals don't have to be soft and fond to bring out the best in us. A social worker encouraged aggressive boys to handle ferrets--if handled correctly they respond with friendship; if incorrectly they bite."
There seems to be no doubt that, emotionally and physically, our pets do us good--there is a price to be paid. When loved animal dies it is often a traumatic event--and then where do we turn for comfort?
Pets are sometimes criticized because they ______.
A lack intelligence
B are destructive
C need considerable care
D demand affection
The idea that animals are a substitute for children is ______.
A supported by research
B encouraged by psychologists
C an argument for keeping a pet
D a common prejudice
Talking to animals is ______.
A ferret is probably a kind of ______.
A tame animal
B fierce animal
C lovely animal
D tamable animal
The writer believes that pets are valuable to children because they ______.
A return affection
B are comforting
C need looking after
D are protective
Television has transformed politics in the United States by changing the way in which information is disseminated, by altering political campaigns, and by changing citizens' patterns of response to politics. By giving citizens independent access to the candidates, television diminished the role of the political party in the selection of the major party candidates. By centering politics on the person of the candidate, television accelerated the citizen's focus on character than issues.
Television has altered the forms of political communication as well. The messages on which most of us rely are briefer than they once were. The stump speech, a political speech given by traveling politicians and lasting 1.5 to 2 hours, which characterized nineteenth century political discourse, has given way to the 30-second advertisement and 10-second "sound bite (原声摘要)" in broadcast news. Increasingly the audience for speeches is not that standing in front of the politician but rather viewing audience who will hear and see a snippet (摘录) of the speech on the news.
In these abbreviated (缩减的)forms, much of what constituted the traditional political discourse of earlier ages has been lost. In 15 or 30 seconds, a speaker cannot establish the historical context that shaped the issue in question, cannot detail the probable causes of the problem, and cannot examine alternative proposals to argue that one is preferable to others. In snippets, politicians assert but do not argue.
Because television is an intimate medium, speaking through it required a changed political style that was more conversational, personal, and visual than that of the old-style stump speech. Reliance on television means that increasingly our political world contains memorable pictures rather than memorable words. Schools teach us to analyze words and print. However, in a world in which politics is increasingly visual, informed citizenship requires a new set of skills.
Recognizing the power of television's pictures, politicians craft televisual, staged events, called pseudo events, designed to attract media coverage. Much of the political activity we see on television news has been crafted by politicians, their speechwriters, and their public relations advisers for televised consumption bites in news and answers to questions in debates increasingly sound like advertisements.
It can be inferred from the passage that ______.
A politics in the United States has been significantly changed by television
B citizens in the United States prefer to see politicians on television instead of in person
C politics in the United States has become substantially more controversial since the introduction of television
D citizens in the United States are now more informed about political issues because of television coverage
It is stated in the passage that before the production of television, political parties ______.
A received more money
B attracted more members
C spent more money promoting their political candidates
D had more influence over the selection of political candidates
According to the passage, as compared with televised speeches, traditional political discourse was more successful in ______.
A allowing news coverage of political candidates
B making politics seem more intimate to the citizen
C placing political issues within a historical context
D providing detailed information on the candidate's private behavior
The author states "politicians assert but not argue" at the end of Paragraph 3 in order to suggest that politicians ______.
A enjoy explaining the issues to broadcasters
B take stronger positions on issues than in the past
C make claims without providing reasons for the claims
D dislike having to explain their own positions on issues to citizens
Paragraph 4 is to suggest that ______.
A politicians who are considered very attractive are favored by citizens over politicians who are less attractive
B citizens will need to learn how to evaluate visual political images in order to become better informed
C citizens tend to favor a politician who analyzes the issues over one who does not
D politicians will need to learn to become more personal when meeting citizens
For many people today, reading is no longer relaxation. To keep up their work they must read letters, reports, trade publications, interoffice communications, not to mention newspapers and magazines: a never-ending flood of words. In (1) a job or advancing in one, the ability to read and comprehend (2) can mean the difference between success and failure. Yet the unfortunate fact is that most of us are (3) readers. Most of us develop poor reading (4) at an early age, and never get over them. The main deficiency (5) in the actual stuff of language itself---words. Taken individually, words have (6) meaning until they are strung together into phrases, sentences and paragraphs. (7) , however, the untrained reader does not read groups of words. He laboriously reads one word at a time, often regressing to (8) words or passages. Regression, the tendency to look back over (9) you have just read, is a common bad habit in reading. Another habit which (10) down the speed of reading is vocalization-sounding each word either orally or mentally as (11) reads.
To overcome these bad habits, some reading clinics use a device called an (12) , which moves a bar (or curtain) down the page at a predetermined speed. The bar is set at a slightly faster rate (13) the reader finds comfortable, in order to "stretch" him. The accelerator forces the reader to read fast, (14) word-by-word reading, regression and subvocalization, practically impossible. At first (15) is sacrificed for speed. But when you learn to read ideas and concepts, you will not only read faster, (16) your comprehension will improve. Many people have found (17) reading skill drastically improved after some training. (18) Charles Green, a business manager, for instance, his reading rate was a reasonably good 172 words a minute (19) .the training, now it is an excellent 1,378 words a minute. He is delighted that now he can (20) a lot more reading material in a short period of time.
B a lot
B In fact
A some one
D such a
A Look at
B go over
D get through
The survey shows that __________________ (现在去国有企业就职的想法对年青人没有多大的吸引力).
It was not until the 19th century __________________ (人们才认识到热是能量的一种形式).
Not surprisingly, __________________ (他的智力和经验使他能够应付复杂局面).
In some places, little is done to __________________ (把烟土尘净化，就把它排放到空中去了).
Although he is __________________ (比哥哥小几岁，但他们的知识差不多一样渊博).