Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition with the title of A Harmonious Cyberspace, giving an introduction of the advantages and disadvantages of the cyberspace, and some measures to solve the problem. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1--4, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 5--10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Intelligent Transport System
Today, there are many ways to travel around a large metropolitan area, for work or pleasure. You could walk, although the range is admittedly low. You could bicycle, but you still do a lot of work, and it's dangerous. You could drive a car, which takes concentration and sobriety and a license. You could ride a bus, and let someone else drive. You could take a train, and let a computer drive you. Or you could fly, and wait a long time for the plane to take off and land.
All modes of transportation have advantages, and disadvantages. However, in recent decades, the single system that has won over all others is the private automobile. This allows you to go from your starting point to your destination point, with your complete control, at a reasonable speed in a reasonable time. Unfortunately, apart from the pollutants created by the vehicle itself, the fact that so many other people seem to enjoy its perceived freedom causes major traffic jams, and the requirement for traffic control devices.
Too many people using too little road space at the same time causes traffic jams. It is most profound on large grade separated roads, that have limited access. There have been various solutions tried out, including high occupancy vehicle lanes, ramp metering, or road widening. Unfortunately, they simply don't solve the problem of lack of capacity.
Traffic control devices impose certain controls on the flow of traffic. Most common are traffic lights. These meter the flow of traffic between two or more roads so that at no time is any vehicle in conflict with any other. However, they also impose that traffic comes to a complete stop, requiring vehicles to stop and then start again. This not only slows vehicles down, but also is the prime cause of wasted energy in urban settings.
Unfortunately, cities are very reluctant to spend money. Therefore any future transport system has to be cheap for cities. This implies that current infrastructure is kept as much as possible, or improved. Using roads, the prime infrastructure available today would mean the form factor for vehicles would stay the same, but each individual vehicle could be made more intelligent.
So for tomorrow, we need to design a transport system that uses roads or a very slight improvement on roads to provide a high capacity system that provides service for everyone. This could be achieved by implementing the following eight systems, each of which provides more of a burden on the car manufacturer, but would eventually provide a system, which is automatic, safe and efficient.
Firstly, all cars should have intelligence brakes and cruise control. These would remove the driver from the responsibility of having to follow along behind somebody. By pressing a button, the driver would give control of the distance between his car and the car in front. If the car in front slowed down, you would not have to wait for the brake lights to light up, the driver to see them, Wen press the brake pedal the right amount, and continuously monitor the distance. Instead the car would be programmed to continuously monitor the distance to the car in front and instantly alter its speed to match and maintain the distance.
By speeding up the feedback circuit, you can close the distance of cars, and therefore increase the capacity. You also remove driver error so reducing the number of accidents. Also, cars could communicate locally with each other and ware ahead of time that following cars need to slow down.
Next, you need to remove the driver from the responsibility of steering the vehicle. Having complex vision systems on a car seems over the top as they not only dramatically increase the cost of the car, but also the complexity of the control software. Instead you could build detector into the front of the car that detect the middle of a lane of traffic. The car would try and keep the vehicle in that lane. Junctions could be built by having the centerline split. The operator or route planning software would decide which of the two or more signals to follow.
Separating lanes of automatic cars from those driven by humans especially on high speed highways, would give an incentive to not only purchase an automatic car but also to purchase the road space which it uses. Since these separate lanes would have not only fast moving traffic but also safer traffic, they could be marked and sold by cities to create a revenue stream to allow the building of more augmented roads.
Having a device in the car that does route planning is a great help for people who don't know the way around your city. But what if you lived in the city for many years? It's not going to be that much use, is it? By linking route planning with real time information on traffic levels in the city, you can quickly divert your journey to use the most efficient roads. This information could be relayed to vehicles using broadcast radio. Roadside sensors that determine the flow of traffic on a road would detect the speeds.
The ability to remove the parking requirements from near a building would allow more compact cities, which are better pedestrian environments. However, people don't like to walk from a parking structure that is a long way from their destination. The solution is to allow the car to drop off the passengers where required and then drive itself to the nearest parking structure that is known to have a space.
By automatically controlling the speed and location of all traffic, you can' make junctions work very efficiently. At the moment, some traffic has to stop, and when it resumes, the cars spread out into a large disperse volume. Instead you could move each group of cars as a packet, adjusting its speed so that it arrives at an intersection at just the right time so that it never has to stop. This could be achieved by changing the speed of a section of road so those cars slow down gradually. The speeds of road segments would be set by nearby junction computers each linked to the other. This would create a holistic traffic control system. If one section lost power, the system would revert to a normal junction.
When a group of people move from one location to another, it would make sense to allow them to travel together instead of having to each use a separate vehicle. On demand group transport would allow the request of a large vehicle which can automatically move people from one location to another. These vehicles would be stored at strategic locations, and then sent to the requesting site as quickly as possible. Vehicles could be booked in advance, and you pay by the time used in minutes, not the distance traveled or destination.
At the other end is the replacement of the taxi. This would be similar to the group transport but for smaller groups. Again these vehicles would be stored at strategic locations, so that people don't have to wait very long. Again they are hired by the minute of use. Since you are no longer required to own your own vehicle, the total number of vehicles required in the whole system is reduced, and therefore the number of parking spaces required. Given a fully demand driven transport system, you would never need to find another parking space in your life.
After the above is implemented, you have on demand private or group transport vehicles driving themselves from point to point without the need to stop at junctions, wait for traffic jams on freeways, or get lost along the way.
Riding a bicycle takes concentration, sobriety and a license.
Private automobile is the most important mode of transportation in recent decades.
Air pollution is the most serious problem caused by the exist of too many private automobiles.
Traffic lights are the most common traffic control devices.
Drivers can be free from the responsibility of having to follow along behind someone with the help of ______.
Having complex vision system will increase the cost of the car and increase ______.
You can have fast moving and safer traffic in ______.
To solve the problem of parking, we need the car to drive itself to the nearest parking structure after ______.
We have a request of a large vehicle which can automatically move people from one location to another to meet the demand of ______.
In order to be prompt, taxi for the transport of smaller groups should be stored at ______.
A Commenting on a picture.
B Looking at some paint,
C Painting a picture.
D Comparing two paintings.
A Professor and student.
B Shop assistant and customer.
C Librarian and reader.
D Two friends.
A Future happiness is attractive,
B The man shouldn't work too hard for the happiness of future.
C The man should retire early.
D Today' s happiness is less important than tomorrow's.
A In a bar.
B In a restaurant.
C In a hotel.
D In a grocer' s.
A The man is handsome.
B The man used to be unhealthy.
C The lecture is not very clear
D The man has become a better person.
A Buy something to eat on the train.
B Take the five o' clock train
C Wait to catch a later train.
D Take the train to the airport,
A She feels nervous about the test.
B She worries about her competence.
C She thinks she is well prepared.
D She doesn't like the training behind the wheel.
A Take a break.
B Go to work.
C Do the other problems.
D Keep trying.
A She has a powerful mother.
B She loves her cat.
C To be a vet is her dream.
D For her teacher.
A Cathy is not so brilliant.
B Cathy thinks her mother is very kind.
C She went to France with the school choir last year.
D The man is her father.
A For hunting.
B For protecting himself.
C For stimulation.
D For protecting the country.
A Males are arrested about four times more than females.
B According to the survey, 61% of all men feel unsafe in their own neighborhoods at night.
C More women arrested than men in juvenile runaway cases and prostitution.
D The police and court are required to be more kind to the female offenders.
C Aggravated assault.
C New York.
C Three times.
A They won the tournament last year.
B They have been trained the hardest in the tournament.
C They have the most money to spend on their athletes.
D They have never lost a game before.
A The German team.
B The British team.
C The Brazilian Team.
D The American team.
With the recent rapid advances in information technologies, (1)_________ researchers at every level and in every (2)_________ have developed new methods, tools, and (3)_________ for instruction. As the Internet, e-mail and multimedia have already become parts of most college students lives nowadays; (4) _________ these new information tech nologies to engineering and science instruction is a great (5)_________ for teachers and researchers. Although the effectiveness and (6)_________ of new information technologies on education are not yet well (7) _________ and documented the promises and (8)_________ they hold for improving education are exciting For example, (9)____________________________________ Students at home and in work places can have access to learning material at any time. (10)____________________________________ . Students can work on learning materials at their own pace and discuss them with other people when they have questions. In other words, (11)____________________________________
The three biggest lies in America are: (1) "The check is in the mail." (2) "Of course I'll respect you in the morning." (3) "It was a computer error."
Of these three little white lies, the worst of the lot by far is the third. It's the only one that can never be true. Today, if a bank statement cheats you out of $900 that way, you know what the clerk is sure to say: "It was a computer error." Nonsense. The computer is reporting nothing more than what the clerk typed into it.
The most irritating case of all is when the computerized cash register in the grocery store shows that an item costs more than it actually does. If the innocent buyer points out the mistake, the checker, bagger, and manager all come together and offer the familiar explanation: "It was a computer error."
It wasn't, of course. That high-tech cash register is really nothing more than an electric eye. The eye reads the Universal Product Code--that ribbon of black and white lines in a comer of the package--and then checks the code against a price list stored in memory. If the price list is right, you'll be charged accurately.
Grocery stores update the price list each day--that is, somebody sits at a keyboard and types in the prices. If the price they type in is too high, there are only two explanations: carelessness or dishonesty. But somehow "a computer error" is supposed to excuse everything.
One reason we let people hide behind a computer is the common misperception that huge, modem computers are "electric Brains" with artificial intelligence. At some point there might be a machine with intelligence, but none exists today. The smartest computer on Earth right now is no more "intelligent" than your average screwdriver. At this point in the development of computers, the only thing any machine can do is what a human has instructed it to do.
The biggest lie in America is ______.
In the bank, a computer's work is to ______.
We are told that a high-tech cash register is really just ______.
The reason why a computerized cash register in the grocery store shows that an item costs more than it actually does is that ______.
Nowadays computers can do ______.
Corporations and individual donors will now be able to claim tax deductions (减除，扣除) for donations to any licensed non-profit public welfare organization.
The new policy was announced by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation on Friday.
In the meantime, the draft of the country's first law on charity is expected to be presented to the top legislature (立法机关，立法机构) for examination and approval later this year.
At present only donations to about 20 major charity organizations are tax-deductible, according to a policy issued last year.
But Ge Daosheng, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences' Institute of Sociology, doubted whether the policy could be faithfully carried out at all levels.
"The procedures for donors to claim deductions in taxes are often extremely complicated in many places," Ge said.
Experts have called for legislative transparency and less government involvement in charity activities.
The Ministry of Civil Affairs, which has overall responsibility for the nation's charity affairs, said on Wednesday it had finished drafting the Law of Charity and would submit it to the National People's Congress for examination.
The Beijing Times quoted Vice-Minister of Civil Affairs Li Liguo as saying the law would encourage any kind of charity or voluntary body to promote public welfare, and would strengthen supervision of charity organizations in their use of donations.
"There has been a strong voice in recent years to promulgate (发布) a charity law to standardize charity practices and give people more freedom to participate in public welfare undertakings," said Yang Tuan, a researcher with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
However, Yang said the controversial draft might take another two to three years before it becomes law.
Yang, director of the academy's Social Policy Research Center and an expert involved in the draft law, said a major point of controversy was the government's role in charity activities.
He said the government should play a less dominant role and give non-governmental charity organizations more scope to grow.
"The law should make establishing charity or public welfare organizations as easy as registering businesses," Yang said.
China's first law on charity has now been finished drafting and will be submitted to China's top legislature, ______ for approval.
A the National People's Congress
B the Ministry of Finance
C the State Administration of Taxation
D Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
What benefits will donors get from the new policy on charity?
B Official commendation.
C Tax deductions.
D Less procedures.
The controversy over the first draft of the Law of Charity centers on ______.
A legislative transparency
B the government's dominant role in charity activities
C the supervision of charity organizations
D the Ministry of Civil Affairs' responsibility
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A Donors who want to claim deductions 'in taxes don't have to go through complex procedures from now on.
B The Law of Charity will be promulgated this year.
C China's charity development sill has a long way to go.
D It is as easy establishing charity or public welfare organizations as registering businesses now.
______ play (s) an important role in accelerating the drafting of the Law of Charity.
A Public voice
B Non-profit welfare organizations
D Charity organizations
Every Sunday morning millions of Indians settle down with a cup of tea and the special weekend issues of their newspapers, just as Americans do. But here, with the marriage season approaching, many of them turn quickly to a Sunday feature that is particularly Indian--the columns and columns of marriage advertisements in which young people look for husbands or wives.
"Beautiful Brahman girl wanted for bank officer from well-connected family," one says. "Vegetarian man (doctor, engineer preferred) for church-educated girl with light complexion," says another. "Solid 25-year-old, salary four figures, wants tall, charming, educated Punjabi," says a third.
This is a relatively modem change in the age-old custom of the arranged marriage. The thousands of advertisements published each week increasingly reflect social changes that are coming to this traditional society. For example, although women are still usually described in terms of appearance, or skills in "the wifely arts", information about their earning power is entering more and more of the advertisements. This reflects the arrival in India of the working wife.
Divorce, which used to be almost unheard of in India, is sometimes now mentioned in the advertisements as in the case of a woman whose advertisement in a New Delhi newspaper explained that she had been "the innocent party" when her marriage broke up.
Because the custom of the dowry (marriage payment) is now illegal, some advertisements say "no dowry", or "simple marriage," which means the same thing. However, the fathers of many bridegrooms still require it.
As a sign of the slight loosening of the rigid caste (social class) system, a number of advertisements promise "caste not important", or "girl's abilities will be main consideration". The majority of them, however, still require not only caste, such as Brahman or Kshatriya, but also a certain home region or ethnic origin.
In a land where light skin is often regarded as socially preferable, many also require that a woman have a "wheat color" complexion or that a man be "tall, fair and handsome". Advertisements are placed and eagerly read by a wide range of people in the upper classes, mostly in cities. Many of them receive dozens of answers. "There's nothing embarrassing about it," explained a Calcutta businessman advertising for a son-in-law. "It's just another way of broadening the contacts and increasing the possibility of doing the best one can for one's daughter."
Because of high unemployment and a generally poor standard of living here, one of the best attractions a marriage advertisement can offer is a permit to live abroad, especially in Canada or the United States. A person who has one can get what he wants.
One recent Sunday in Madras, for example, a Punjabi engineer living in San Francisco advertised for a "beautiful slim bride with lovely features knowing music and dance". And a man whose advertisement said that he had an American immigration permit was able to say, "Only girls from rich, well-educated families need apply.
The main idea of Paragraph 3 is ______.
A that India's society is changing
B women work
C arranged marriages are an age old custom
D working wife arrives
Although he does not directly say it, the Calcutta businessman would probably agree that ______.
A it is a good idea to place marriage advertisements in the newspaper
B it is a bad idea to place marriage advertisements in the newspaper
C it is embarrassing if anyone answers such advertisements
D it is embarrassing if no one answers such advertisements
In the sentence "A person who has one can get what he wants", the word "one" refers to ______.
B marriage advertisement
C permit to live abroad
D Canada or the United States
Paragraph 10 gives examples of ______.
A advertisements from two women looking for husbands
B typical marriage advertisements from the Madras newspapers
C the qualities that a person with an immigration permit can ask for and expect to get
D the change of traditional marriage custom
A good title for this article would be ______.
A Why Do People Marry?
B Marriage Customs in India Are Changing
C Why Indians Read the Sunday Newspaper?
D Living Abroad
A great many cities are experiencing difficulties which
are nothing new in the history of cities, except for in their 1. ______
scale. Some cities have lost their original purpose and have
not found? new one. And any large or rich city is going to 2. ______
attract poor immigrants, who flood in, filling with hopes 3. ______
of prosperity which are then often disappointing. There are
backward towns on the edge of Bombay or Brasilia, just
as though there were on the edge of seventeenth-century 4. ______
London or early nineteenth-century Paris. This is new is 5. ______
the scale. Descriptions written by eighteenth-century travelers
of the poor of Mexico City, and the enormous contrasts
that was to be found there, are very similar to descriptions 6. ______
of Mexico City today-the poor can still be numbered in millions.
The whole monstrous growth rests on economic prosperity,
but behind it lies two myths: the myth of the city as a 7. ______
promised land, that attracts immigrants from rural poverty 8. ______
and brings it flooding into city centers, and the myth of the 9. ______
country as a Garden of Eden, which, a few generations
late, sends them flooding out again to the suburbs. 10. ______
By making vehicles lighter in weight, aluminum ____________________ (大减少了开动它们所需的燃料).
Some people claim that health is wealth, because they consider ____________________ (身体的健康比钱财或物质财富更有价值).
The modem communication industry ____________________ (通过让人们获取信息和娱乐，拓宽了人们的眼界).
He stated his belief ____________________ (认为进化是自然选择的产物).
Many people ____________________ (主张将儿童教育延长到18岁).
A Same height.
B Same friends.
C Same number of children.
D Same university.
A She married twice.
B She does not like baby.
C She likes to do housework.
D She envies her sister.
A Same gene, same life.
B Identical twins also have very different lives.
C The element of environment is more important.
D None of the above.
A It's near Mexico City.
B It's in Guatemala.
C It's stretched from the plains of central Mexico to the mountains of Guatemala.
D It's in America.
A It has become a clumsy giant.
B The city has suffered from lung-time famine.
C There was an epidemic disease that time.
D It has been set on fire.
A Teotihuacan, once the home of 200,000 people, was the center of a large empire.
B Many archaeologists are fascinated by the ruins of a pre-Columbia city called Teotihuacan.
C Teotihuacan, once a major metropolitan area, was destroyed by an invasion.
D A still unsolved mystery is why the people of Teotihnacan suddenly abandoned their city.