Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled A Letter of Application. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
A Letter of Application
The Darkest Side of ID Theft
March 9, 2003—Malcolm Byrd was home on a Saturday night when a knock came. Three Rock Country, Wis., sheriff's officers were there with a warrant for Byrd's arrest. Cocaine possession, with intent to distribute, it said. Byrd tried to tell them that they had the wrong man, that it was a case of mistaken identity. But they wouldn't listen. Instead they put him in handcuffs (手铐) and drove him away.
It was nothing new for Byrd, who has spent much of the past five years trying—unsuccessfully—to talk skeptical police officers out of arresting him. But this time, it was worse. Two days later, he was still in jail.
This is the worst thing for identity theft victims. Losing your clean credit history is one thing; losing you freedom is another. And victims of America's fastest-growing crime are discovering they often have much more to worry about than the hundreds of hours of paperwork to clean up the financial mess associated with ID theft. Sometimes, they have to worry about being pushed in jail—again and again.
Alias(化名) Becomes a Disease
There's nothing new about criminals using aliases to evade the law. Criminals often try to give their friend's name, address, and date of birth to cheat police. But the explosion of identity theft, and the ready availability of stolen digital files on innocent victims, makes it just as easy for a criminal to give a stranger's personal data during an arrest. Once police book a suspect under a fake name, that mistake can plague a victim for life. The Alias becomes a disease to the true owner of that character.
Getting names off those lists can be a big task. The problem is complicated by the increasing sophistication of law enforcement officials. "Officials of criminal records are—for good reason —reluctant to remove information once it's been placed in the database," said Beth Givens, executive director of the Identity Theft Clearing House.
His Word Against a Database
In Byrd's case, his word has never been enough. The situation has left the Janesville, Wis. , man thinking about name changing. With his impostor (冒名顶替) still committing crimes and still using his name, Byrd fears another arrest. "I don't feel safe now. When we drive I feel uncomfortable," Byrd said. "It's affected our lives enormously."
Tom Schroeder, a famous lawyer, confirmed many of the details of Byrd's repeated run-ins with the law. "Mr. Byrd is worried that if he is in Milwaukee County and gets stopped for some reason and the officer puts it into a computer, he may still come up," Schroeder said. "And I don't blame him."
Efforts to eliminate Byrd's criminal record at the state and federal level haven't succeeded, Schroeder said. "I left a voice mail on Mr. Byrd's phone indicating we'd be happy to help him change his name and his Social Security number."
How It Began
Byrd's nightmare began in 1998, he said. A man arrested on drug charges that year identified himself to local officials as Malcolm Byrd.
Thanks to an article in the local Janesville Gazette, the real Malcolm Byrd found out about the identity theft, and headed to the police to correct the error. The paper ran a correction, too. But that was hardly the end of the nightmare.
Four months later, when he was stopped for speeding, Byrd found himself face down on the pavement, handcuffed. Police records still showed that he was wanted for drug dealing.
The matter was cleared up when officials compared a photo of the suspect to Byrd, but not before he had lost half a day's wages sitting at the police station. Soon after, Byrd was fired from his part-time job as a nursing assistant because he was accused of lying about his criminal record. Months later, he was laid off from his full-time job.
A year later, while surfing the Internet, Byrd discovered his impostor had been arrested again, this time in a neighboring county. To clear his name, he visited the county district attorney's office and submitted his fingerprints. In exchange, Byrd received court documents proving his innocence. But that didn't stop him from losing his license a second time in 2000, he said.
After that, life seemed back to normal until April of last year, when Byrd was stopped again. Once again, he found himself in handcuffs in the back of a squad car, losing half a day's pay until officers cleared up the confusion.
But that was nothing compared to the most recent arrest, which took place over the Martin Luther King Jr. Day holiday weekend. Byrd had lent his car to his niece, who was stopped by police that Saturday night. "Do you know where Malcolm is?" they asked her. Minutes later, three deputies were at Byrd's home, armed with warrants from three counties.
Byrd's wife Carla ran to the sheriff's department around midnight that night with the court papers clearing her husband's name. But that didn't help—the warrants were dated after Byrd's declaration of innocence.
How Common Is It?
Byrd's tale is extreme, but hardly unique. Most law enforcement officers say this type of criminal identity theft is rare. But the few reliable identity theft statistics suggest it may he more common than they think. The rate of identity theft crimes doubles every year, and 12 percent of victims "found that they must deal with wrongful criminal records. "
"I think it is more common now because identity theft is a bigger problem," said Michael Groch, deputy district attorney of San Diego County's CATCH High Tech Crimes task force.
California also has created a special identity theft registry to address the problem, a victims' database that can be used to prevent a false arrest. If a victim is threatened with arrest by a police officer, the victim gives the officer a telephone number to call, and a PIN code. The officer then hears a message explaining that this person is an identity theft victim.
How Does It Happen?
It might seem elemental that arresting officers confirm the identity before arresting someone, but that's not as easy as it sounds. Often, for lesser crimes, law enforcement officials simply take the criminal's word—particularly for "instant-release" violations like traffic offenses.
"If the suspect gives a name and date of birth, and if that information checks out, if the officer doesn't have any reason to doubt the person a lot of times that is going to be the end of it," Groch said. "It's different than if they make up a name."
But even for more serious offenses, like drug possession, police officers often won't do much to verify an identity, particularly if the suspect is an identity thief who has managed to obtain an official, state-issued driver's license.
"You may be brought in or fingerprinted, and taken a photo, even appear before a magistrate (治安官) on a TV monitor. And out the door you go. No cross-checking is done," said Rob Douglas, a former Washington prosecutor (起诉人). "When people are arrested, it's rare that they will cross check with the national crime database because they already have you on a crime. Often times, the first time a thorough background will be done is at the time of sentencing."
So when identity thieves are released on bail, and never show up for their court hearings, a warrant is issued for the victim—and the thief has pretty much beaten the system.
Beating Technology with Technology
The difficulty of beating back bad data is at the core of the problem, and there are some proposed technological solutions. Instant fingerprint identification networks would cut down on misidentifications, for example. Some locales have tested computers that showed each suspect's photograph along with warrant information to the arresting officer at the scene; that would prevent some wrongful arrests. But both solutions have civil liberty implications, and both are costly.
"I don't think there is a great solution that is not going to invade people's privacy and not going to cost a fortune," Groch said. "When someone say, 'It's not me,' police have to be more sensitive and do a bit more checking. Cops have to follow their own common sense and need to take a little extra item."
That's cold comfort to Malcolm Byrd's wife. She said her husband is probably safe for now, given the publicity he received from the Janesville Gazette and a local radio station.
Malcolm Byrd was arrested again on March 9, 2003, because ______.
A he was a victim of identity theft
B the police officers arrested the wrong man
C he was found to possess some cocaine
D he was wanted by the police
Which of the following troubles is not caused by identity theft?
A Clean credit history.
B Loss of freedom.
C Financial mess.
D A lot of paperwork.
Once the police book a suspect under a fake name, it is difficult to get the name off the list, because ______.
A it is banned by police
B the police are not willing to remove it
C it takes the police a lot of time to remove it
D it makes the police embarrassed
Tom Schroeder is
A good at defending those identity theft victims
B indifferent to Byrd's case
C worried about Byrd
D willing to help Byrd
Four months after he corrected the error, Byrd was arrested by the police because ______.
A he was wanted for drug dealing
B he drove too fast
C he was mistaken for drug dealing
D he was found of drug dealing
After Byrd's most recent arrest, his wife wanted to clear his name but in vain, because ______.
A the warrants were dated after Byrd's declaration of innocence
B the warrants were dated before Byrd's declaration of innocence
C Byrd's declaration of innocence was dated after the warrants
D it made no difference whether Byrd got a declaration of innocence or not
In order to ______, California also has created a special identity theft registry.
A help those victims
B make things right
C make up for their mistakes
D prevent a mistaken arrest
When arresting someone, the arresting officers had better ______ in case of identity theft.
Some proposed technological solutions, such as ______, can be used to beat misidentification.
Malcolm Byrd's wife said that ______ may bring her husband safety for now.
A His parents detained his car.
B There is something wrong with his car's wheel.
C He was unable to drive a car because of his misadventure.
D His car was damaged by a ear accident.
A They can defeat their opponent effortlessly.
B Someone gave their information away to their rival.
C Their opponent thinks the same way they do.
D There is something unpractical in their plan.
A The woman likes Mia's new hairstyle very much.
B Both the man and the woman do not like Mia's new hairstyle.
C Because of Mia's nice hairstyle, everyone is polite to her.
D Everyone thinks highly of Mia's new hairstyle.
A The man is pleased to work for the woman.
B The man hoisted the suitcase without much effort.
C The woman doesn't know where to place her suitcase.
D The man considers the woman's praise as flattery.
A Nowadays an iPod is very precious.
B The women's baby-sister is very hard to please.
C IPod gains great popularity in recent years.
D What the woman will send her sister as a birthday present.
A They can improve their team's defense very quickly.
B They have lots of three-point shooters.
C Their team members can shoot accurately.
D Their three-point shooters are better than other teams.
A The man needs to talk to his son more.
B The man's son behaved badly in school.
C The woman has lots of reason to expel the man's son.
D The man always shows less care to his son.
A She is reluctant to change their trip.
B Himalayas is known for the peaceful atmosphere.
C She thinks she will enjoy this trip.
D Fresh air is the only thing she pursues.
A Doing yoga.
C Doing some weights.
D Learning breathing.
A Mental and physical health.
B Slim figure.
C Quick response.
D Proper thinking.
A Painful postures.
B Distorting body.
C Moneymaking trick.
D Useless meditation.
A Visiting yoga coach.
B Joining a yoga class.
C Learning breathing.
D Keep on jogging as usual.
A She sleeps less than her friend.
B She is confused and incompetent while working.
C She is annoyed by energy.
D Her friend can accomplish more tasks than her.
A Flies need less sleep than humans.
B Humans need a similar amount of sleep with flies.
C The amount of human sleep is determined by certain gene.
D Flies can determine how much sleep they need.
A They can not accomplish their daily tasks.
B They suffer injuries from less amount of sleep.
C They get no damage in their performance.
D They operate worse than normal.
A Adding GPS, 3G, a higher-resolution camera.
B Adding some fringe benefits that make it appealing.
C Including operability with more wireless carriers.
D Using less expensive but powerful chips
B Energy Star.
A Product with lower energy consumption.
B Product without flaws.
C Product draining the world's energy resources.
D Product shocked game-playing crowd.
A Pumping up the graphics prowess of their panels.
B Producing active game play.
C Moving computer game in a new direction.
D The success will go unchallenged.
A Humans got equal teamwork with ants.
B Ants usually accomplish the most complex tasks.
C Ants communicate through chemicals.
D Ants have an amazing ability to specialize behavior.
A By using their body to pave the way for others.
B By covering holes inside their nest.
C By determining which one is the best fit.
D By stepping on remainder's back.
A Intelligence section.
B Cargo transfers on airplanes.
C Telecommunication hardware moving.
D Data collecting technique.
A Water absorbing ability.
B The cell's membrane.
C Its surroundings.
D The ability to maintain salt.
A They lose water constantly.
B They contain a relatively lower concentration of salt.
C They neither lose nor absorb water~
D They possess a relatively higher concentration of salt.
A Excreting salt through gill cells.
B Losing more water to their surroundings~
C Drinking more water.
D Diluting the amount of salt.
What does it mean to say that we live in a world of persuasion? It means that we live among (1)________interests. Your roommate's need to study for an exam may take (2)________over pizza. Your instructor may have good reasons not to change your grade. And the (3)________of your romantic interest may have other options.
In such a world, persuasion is the art of getting others to give fair and favorable (4)________to our point of view. When we persuade, we want to (5)________how others believe and behave. We may not always (6)________— other points of view may be more persuasive, depending on the listener, the situation, and the (7)________of the case. But when we practice the art of persuasion, we try to ensure that our position receives the attention it (8)________
Some people, however, object to the very idea of persuasion. They may regard it (9)______________________________________________________________________________. In contrast, we believe that persuasion is inevitable—to live is to persuade. Persuasion may be ethical or unethical, selfless or selfish, inspiring or degrading. (10)______________________________________________________________________________. Ethical persuasion, however, calls for sound reasoning and is sensitive to the feelings and needs of listeners~ Such persuasion can help us apply the wisdom of the past to the decisions we now must make. Therefore, (11)______________________________________________________________________________
When the sun is up in Amsterdam, the largest city in the Netherlands sits quietly on the Amstel River. You can rent a bicycle, visit the Van Gogh or Anne Frank museum, or take a water taxi.
But when the sun goes down, the partying begins. In the big clubs and in coffee shops, tourists gather to hang out, talk politics and smoke.
Several areas of the city clearly show the two worlds that rule Amsterdam. And they're all within a short cab ride of each other.
For example, Dam Square attracts daytime sightseers to its festivals, open markets, concerts and other events. Several beautiful and very popular hotels can be found there. And there is the Royal Palace and the Magna Plaza shopping mall.
But as evening descends on Dam Square so do the party-seekers. Hip pop or funk music begins blaring from Club Paradiso and Club Melkweg. These are two of the most popular clubs in Europe. So if you come, be ready to dance. The clubs don't shut down until 4 am.
And while you are there, check out the various inexpensive ways to tour the city. Don't worry about getting lost. Although Dutch is the official language, most people in Amsterdam speak English and are happy to help you with directions.
And you'll notice that half the people in the streets are on bicycles. They rent for US $17 to $ 20 for a whole day.
Amsterdam also has a good canal system. From anywhere between US $ 2 and $ 9.50, you can use the canal bus or a water taxi to cruise the "Venice of the North".
You can take in the picturesque canal house architecture: The rows of neat, narrow four-story dwellings of brownstone with large windows are well worth seeing. Many of them are several centuries old.
You might also want to jump out of the canal bus at the Museum Quarter and start walking. Masterpieces by Dutch artists such as Rembrandt, Bruegel, Van Gogh and others are on display at the Van Gogh Museum, Rembrandt House and others.
The city has an appreciation of its historic past. One place to visit is the Anne Frank House in Nine Streets. It was there that the young Jewish girl wrote her famous diary during World War II. Visitors can view Anne's original diary and climb behind the bookcase to the room where she and her family hid from the Nazis(纳粹党人) for two years.
It only takes you a few minutes' cab ride to shift between areas presenting ______.
Which tourist attraction is cited for elaboration in Paragraph Four and Paragraph Five?
Although Dutch is the official language in Amsterdam, you could be free from the anxiety about ______ during the tour.
Riding bicycles is well accepted by the local people and meanwhile it also enjoys ______.
For a historic visit, you can choose the Anne Frank House, where the young girl ______.
No woman can be too rich or too thin. This saying often attributed to the late Duchess (公爵夫人) of Windsor embodies much of the odd spirit of our times. Being thin is deemed as such a virtue.
The problem with such a view is that some people actually attempt to live by it. I myself have fantasies of slipping into narrow designer clothes. Consequently I have been on a diet for the better—or worse—part of my life. Being rich wouldn't be bad either but that won't happen unless an unknown relative dies suddenly in some distant land leaving me millions of dollars.
Where did we go off the track? When did eating butter become a sin and a little bit of extra flesh unappealing if not repellent? All religions have certain days when people refrain from eating and excessive eating is one of Christianity's seven deadly sins. However until quite recently most people had a problem getting enough to eat. In some religious groups, wealth was symbol of probable salvation and high morals and fatness a sign of wealth and well-being.
Today the opposite is true. We have shifted to thinness as our new mark of virtue. The result is that being fat—or even only somewhat overweight—is bad because it implies a lack of moral strength.
Our obsession (迷恋) with thinness is also fuelled by health concerns. It is true that in this country we have more overweight people than ever before and that in many cases being overweight correlates with an increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease. These diseases however may have as much to do with our way of life and our high-fat diets as with excess weight. And the associated risk of cancer in the digestive system may be more of a dietary problem—too much fat and a lack of fiber—than a weight problem.
The real concern then is not that we weight too much but that we neither exercise enough nor eat well. Exercise is necessary for strong bones and both heart and lung health. A balance diet without a lot of fat can also help the body avoid many diseases. We should surely stop paying so much attention to weight. Simply being thin is not enough? It is actually hazardous if those who get or already are thin think they are automatically healthy and thus free from paying attention to their overall life-style. Thinness can be pure vainglory (虚荣).
In the eyes of the author an odd phenomenon nowadays is that ______.
A the Duchess of Windsor is regarded as a woman of virtue
B looking slim is a symbol of having a large fortune
C being thin is viewed as a much desired quality
D religious people are not necessarily virtuous
Swept by the prevailing trend, the author ______.
A had to go on a diet for the greater part of her life
B could still prevent herself from going off the track
C had to seek help from rich distant relatives
D had to wear highly fashionable clothes
In human history people's views on weight ______.
A were closely related to their religious beliefs
B changed from time to time
C varied between the poor and the rich
D led to different moral standards
The author criticizes women's obsession with thinness ______.
A from an economic and educational perspective
B from sociological and medical points of view
C from a historical and religious standpoint
D in the light of moral principles
What's the author's advice to women who are absorbed in the idea of thinness?
A They should be more concerned with their overall lifestyle.
B They should be more watchful for fatal diseases.
C They should gain weight to look healthy.
D They should rid themselves of fantasies about designer clothes.
Public speaking fills most people with dread. Humiliation is the greatest fear; self-exposure and failing to appeal to the audience come a close second. Women hate it most, since girls are pressurized from an early age to be concerned with appearances of all kinds.
Most people have plenty of insecurities, and this seems like a situation that will bring them out. If you were under pressure to be perfect, you are terrified of falling in the most public of ways.
While extroverts will feel less fear before the ordeal, it does not mean they will necessarily do it better. Some very shy people manage to shine. When I met the British comedian Julian Clary, he was shy and cautious, yet his TV performances are perfect.
In fact, personality is not the best predictor of who does it well. Regardless of what you are like in real life, the key seems to be to act yourself.
Actual acting, as in performing the scripted lines of a character other than yourself, does not do the job. While politicians may limit damage by having carefully rehearsed, written scripts to speak from, there is always a hidden awareness among the audience that the words might not be true.
Likewise, the incredibly perfect speeches of many American academics are far from natural. You may end up buying their book on the way out, but soon afterwards, it is much like fast food, and you get a nameless sense that you've been cheated.
Although, as Earl Spencer proved at his sister Princess Diana's funeral, it is possible both to prepare every word and to act naturally. A script rarely works and it is used to help most speakers. But, being yourself doesn't work either. If you spoke as if you were in your own kitchen, it would be too authentic, too unaware of the need to communicate with an audience.
I remember going to see British psychiatrist R. D. Laing speak in public. He behaved like a seriously odd person, talking off the top of his head. Although he was talking about madness and he wrote on mental illness, he seemed to be exhibiting rather than explaining it.
The best psychological place from which to speak is an unself-conscious self-consciousness, providing the illusion of being natural. Studies suggest that this state of "flow", as psychologists call it, is very satisfying.
Women hate public speaking most mainly because of ______.
A their upbringing very early on
B their inability to appeal to the audience
C their sense of greater public pressure
D their sense of greater humiliation
Which of the following is NOT the author's viewpoint?
A Acting like performers spoils the message in a speech.
B Perfection of scripts is necessary in making good impressions.
C Acting naturally means less dependence on the prepared script.
D There should be a balance between actual acting and acting naturally.
What is the author's view on personality?
A Personality is the key to success in public speaking.
B Extroverts are better public speakers.
C Introverts have to learn harder to be good speakers.
D Factors other than personality ensure better performance.
The author implies that while speaking R. D. Laing ______.
A was both too casual and authentic
B was acting like a performer
C was keeping a good balance
D was aware of his audience
In the last paragraph the author recommends that ______.
A you forget about your nervousness
B you feel natural and speak naturally
C you may feel nervous, but appear naturally
D you may imagine yourself to be natural
Nelson Mandela was still in jail when the first street was named (1) him. By the time he retired as President of South Africa, hundreds of streets, squares and schools (2) his name, as did many more pop songs, books and movies. (3) , Mandela is an inspiring figure of the world. But what about (4) books that bear Mandela's name? (5) charities that use his name to (6) their profile? As his legend has grown ever larger, Mandela has been faced with all of these situations. Increasingly, however, Mandela's handlers are fighting back.
Mandela, who will be 91 this year, (7) appears in public and increasingly relies on the managers of his foundation to manage his affairs. Now they're facing with a tricky issue: (8) what point does a very famous man become a private brand? And is it possible to copyright history? So far, the foundation has tackled these difficult questions by trying to stop those who would (9) Mandela's name for (10) or political gain either in ways they don't like (11) in ways they are able to prevent.
In August, the foundation (12) out a code of conduct (13) the commercialization of Mandela's name or (14) by his four official charities and asked the other 44 charities (15) which Mandela is a patron to sign (16) as well. Other charitable causes must get the foundation's (17) before using Mandela's name. In the business of protecting (18) , however, the choice of whether to block or (19) a project is often subjective or a matter of taste, and therefore brings (20) criticism.
B After all
He said there were a few points in the essay ______(他发现难以理解).
______(到了有关当局采取措施的时候) solve traffic problems.
Now, even you stay in the sea for weeks, ______(你不会与外部世界失去联系).
______(许多传统工艺过时了)and should be replaced by modern science.
The grace of Venice City largely ______(在于其古代建筑风格).