Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Traffic Problems of Cities. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
Traffic Problems of Cities
Coffee--The Drink of Choice
Did you know coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world? How did coffee get this ranking? What country first figured out that coffee was safe for consumption? When was the first drink of coffee prepared? Where did the first coffee shop come into being? There are many questions about the starting point of drinking coffee. It has been so long ago that no one really knows all the facts. But, one thing is for sure, coffee is the most consumed beverage on the planet.
The Beginning of Coffee
It looks as if the first trace came out of Abyssinia and was also irregularly in the vicinity of the Red Sea around seven hundred AD. Along with these people, other Africans of the same period also have a history of using the coffee' berry pulp for more than one occasion like rituals and even for health.
Coffee began to get more attention when the Arabs began cultivating it in their peninsulas around eleven hundred AD. It is speculated that trade ships brought the coffee their way. The Arabs started making a drink that became quite popular called gahwa--meaning to prevent sleep. Roasting and boiling the bean was how they made this drink. It became so popular among the Arabs that they made it their signature Arabian wine and it was used a lot during rituals.
After the coffee bean was found to be a great wine and a medicine, someone discovered in Arabia that you could also make a different dark, delicious drink out of the beans, this happened somewhere around twelve hundred AD. After that it didn't take long before everyone in Arabia was drinking coffee. Everywhere these people traveled the coffee went with them. It made its way around to India, North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and was then cultivated to a great extent in Yemen around fourteen hundred AD.
Other countries would have gladly welcomed these beans if only the Arabs had let them.
The Arabs killed the seed-germ making sure no one else could grow the coffee even if it were taken to anywhere else. Heavily guarding their plants, Yemen is where the main source of coffee stayed for several hundred years. Even with their efforts, the beans were eventually smuggled out by pilgrims and travelers.
Coffee Shops Appear
Around 1475 the first coffee shop opened in Constantinople called Kiv Han two years after coffee was introduced to Turkey, in 1554 two coffee houses opened there. People came pouring in to socialize, listen to music, play games and of course drink coffee. Some often called these places in Turkey the "school of the wise", because you could learn so much by just visiting the coffee house and listening to conversations. In the sixteen hundreds coffee enters Europe through the port of Venice. The Turkish warriors also brought the drink to Balkans, Spain, and North Africa. Not too much later the first coffee house opened in Italy.
There were plenty of people also trying to ban coffee. Such as Khair Beg, a governor of Mecca, who was executed and Grand Vizir of the Ottoman Empire who successfully closed down many coffee houses in Turkey. Thankfully not everyone thought this way.
Coffee Tips Arrive
In the early sixteen hundreds coffee was presented to the New World by a man named John Smith. Later in that century, the first coffee house opened in England. Coffee houses or "penny universities" charged a penny for admission and for a cup of coffee. The word "TIPS" (for service) has its origin from an English coffee house.
Early in the 17th century, Edward Lloyd's coffee house opened in England. The Dutch became the first to commercially transport coffee. The first Parisian cafe opened in 1713 and King Louis X1V was presented with a lovely coffee tree. Sugar was first used as an addition to coffee in his court.
The Americas Have Coffee
Coffee plants were introduced into the Americas for development. By close to the end of the seventeen hundreds, 1,920 million plants had been grown on the island.
Evidently the eighteen hundreds were spent trying to find better methods to make coffee.
The Coffee "Brew" in the 20th Century
New methods to help brewing coffee start popping up everywhere. The first commercial espresso machine was developed in Italy. Melitta Bentz made a filter using blotting paper. Dr. Ernest Lily manufactured the first automatic espresso machine. The Nestle Company invented Nescafe instant coffee. Achilles Gaggia perfected the espresso machine. Hills Bros. began packing roasted coffee in vacuum tins eventually ending local roasting shops and coffee mills. A Japanese-American chemist named Satori Kato from Chicago invented the first soluble "instant" coffee.
German coffee importer Ludwig Roselius turned some mined coffee beans over to researchers, who perfected the process of removing caffeine from the beans without destroying the flavor. He sold it under the name Sanka. Sanka is introduced in the United States in 1923.
George Constant Washington, an English chemist living in Guatemala, was interested in a powdery condensation forming on the spout of his silver coffee flask. After checking into it, he created the first mass-produced instant coffee with his brand name called Red E Coffee.
Prohibition went into effect in the United States. Coffee sales suddenly increased. Brazil asked Nestle to help find a solution to their coffee surpluses so the Nestle Company came up with freeze-dried coffee. Nestle also made Nescafe and introduced it to Switzerland.
Other Interesting Coffee Tidbits
Today the US-imports 70 percent of the world's coffee crop. During W. W. Ⅱ, American soldiers were issued instant Maxwell House coffee in their ration kits.
In Italy, Achilles Gaggia perfected his espresso machine. The name Cappuccino comes from the resemblance of its color to the robes of the monks of the Capuchin order.
One week before Woodstock, the Manson family murdered coffee heiress Abigail Folger as she visited with her friend Sharon Tate in the home of filmmaker Roman Polanski.
The Coffee Trends
For the first time since 1990, the percentage of adults who drink a daily cup of java has topped the percentage of adults who drink soft drinks each day. Soft drink consumption decreased 6 percent, down to 51 percent last year, according to a random telephone survey conducted by the National Coffee Drinking Trends Repor which is sponsored by the National Coffee Association.
"Coffee is experiencing a new Renaissance," said Robert Nelson, president and CEO of the association "Coffee is gaining a higher profile among American consumers as they enjoy an expanding menu of option amid an exploding cafe culture."
Other increases include a continuing upward trend among 18 to 24-year-olds in daily consumption and among those who are ages 40 to 59 or over 60 there was an increase to 61 and 74 percent respectively.
The only age category to dip slightly was those aged 25 to 39 who cut back to 44 percent from 47 percent but this is still a higher rate of consumption over 2002. Overall consumption is the same as last year, 89 percent, a continuing rise over the last three years. Other trends spotted in the report are that weekly consumers are down 1 percent less (67 from 68) than 2006 while daily consumers are up 1 percent (48 over 47) and ground coffee is the preferred source for at-home brewing over instant coffee.
Gourmet coffee took a little dip to 14 percent, down from 16 percent in 2006 which some market researchers believe is because "gourmet coffee has become so mainstream it is perceived as 'regular coffee' by the general public.\
In Africa, coffee was once used for ______.
C beer brewing
D animal breeding
"Gahwa" is so called because it can ______.
A prevent sleepiness
B accelerate fat burning
C help cure depression
D strengthen blood vessels
Coffee was spread to the eastern Mediterranean via ______.
A North Africa
B South America
The first coffee shop was opened in ______.
What was Khair Beg's attitude towards coffee?
The first coffee house was opened in England in ______.
A the 15th century
B the 16th century
C the 17th century
D the 18th century
The first automatic espresso coffee machine was produced by ______.
A Melitta Bentz
B The Nestle Company
C Achilles Gaggia
D Ernest Lily
The first mass-produced instant coffee was created by an English chemist in ______.
The color of the robes of the monks of the Capuchin order has something to do with ______.
Since gourmet coffee has become the mainstream, the public regard it as ______.
A She is not good at typing.
B She will definitely not do it.
C She will do it if she has time.
D She will do it because she is free.
A They are planning to buy some books.
B They are planning to go rock climbing.
C They want to go camping on their holiday.
D They want to go traveling at the weekend.
A He doesn't want others to take her place.
B He wants her support in the next election.
C She shouldn't run for the post any more.
D He would like to take her place.
A Sell her bike to the man.
B Let the man use her bike.
C Borrow a bike from the man.
D Stop the man from riding a bike.
A David needs to balance his time with a social life.
B David is falling behind his friends in school.
C David is working hard unnecessarily.
D David is losing all his friends.
A Read the references about the test.
B Read the reference book on the desk.
C Ask the reference desk staff for help.
D Go to another library for help right now.
A He forgot to tell her.
B He had to go to work.
C He lost some valuable things.
D He didn't want to celebrate it.
A No student likes the new location.
B All students like the new location.
C Most students like the new location.
D Only a few students like the new location.
A She can't find a new place to live.
B She thinks she will lose her deposit money.
C The contract states she must stay at least 6 months.
D The landlord wants her to move out after 2 months.
A Take Susan to court.
B Forfeit Susan's money.
C Give Susan's deposit back.
D Charge Susan extra money.
A 1 month.
B 2 months.
C 6 months.
D Over 6 months.
A Lose part of her deposit.
B Go to see the landlord.
C Move out at once.
D Go to court.
A To get some pocket money from her father.
B To persuade him into allowing her more freedom.
C To distract him from asking about her performance at school.
D To help her boy friend leave a good impression on her father.
A She didn't tell the right age of him.
B She forgot to take both the two exams.
C She usually doesn't come back on time.
D She didn't remember historical events clearly.
A The senators' duties.
B The senators' wealth.
C The senators' hobbies.
D The senators' function.
A There are more senators in America.
B The senators in the US are more rational.
C The members in British House of Lords are older.
D The members in British House of Lords are not elected.
A Every 6 years.
B Every 2 years.
C Every 4 years.
D Whenever one dies.
A A bill in the senate.
B A refusal of the bill.
C An approval of the bill.
D A refusal to read the bill.
A The dog's color and size.
B The dog's price and breed.
C Whether the dog will need its companion.
D Whether the dog will fit the environment.
A It needs more secure place.
B It needs more love and care.
C It demands more food and space.
D It must be trained so it won't bite.
A Because it is less likely to run away.
B Because it is less likely to be too shy with other dogs.
C Because it's easier for it to form a relationship with its master.
D Because it's easier for its master to train it to become a good pet.
A Because people needn't worry about their personal safety.
B Because it is usually a two-week stay in an attractive place.
C Because everything is well arranged for you during the tour.
D Because people can decide their own expense during the tour.
A You can't choose the place you want to visit.
B You hardly have any chance to know the local people.
C You have to stay with strangers who you may dislike.
D You are always in a hurry to run from one place to the other.
A People get up early in the morning during the tour.
B Once in a famous place, people have lots of time to enjoy it.
C Coach tours offer very good chances to know about big cities.
D Old people shouldn't take a coach tour because of the fast pace.
Londoners are great readers. They buy vast numbers of newspapers and magazines and even of books--especially paperbacks, which are still (1)_________cheap in spite of ever-increasing rises in the cost of printing. They still buy "proper" books, too, printed on good paper and (2)_________between hard covers.
There are many streets in London (3)_________shops which specialize in book-selling. (4) _________the best known of these is Charing Cross Road. Here books of all sorts and sizes are to be found, from the celebrated one which (5)_________of being "the biggest bookshop in the world" to the (6)_________, dusty little places which seem to have been left over from Dickens' time. Some of these shops (7) _________, or will obtain, any kind of book, but many of them specialize in second-hand books, in art books, in foreign books, in books on (8)_________, politics or any other of the myriad subjects about which books may be written.
(9)_________________________________________________________________, Chafing Cross Road is not the cheapest. For the really cheap second-hand volumes, the collector must venture off the beaten track, to Farringdon Road, in the East Central district of London. Here there is nothing so grandiose as bookshops. (10)_________________________________________________________________on to small barrows which line the gutters. And the collectors, some professional and some amateur, pounce up on the dusty cascade. In places like this (11)_________________________________________________________________ .
The world famous Loch Ness monster, known affectionately as "Nessie" by most people and by the scientific believers goes back a long, long way, the first recorded sighting being by no less a person than a holy saint. The saint was St. Columba and the year 565 AD.
When Columba was travelling in the Loch Ness area converting the Picts, his biographer, St. Adamnan, tells the story of the driving away of the monster by the power of prayer. Whilst on the banks of Loch Ness, St. Columba came upon some Picts burying a man who had been ravaged by, according to them, a "monster of the water". St. Columba miraculously restored the man to life by laying his staff across the man's chest.
The next time that any reference to the monster surfaced, was in a letter to The Scotsman newspaper in 1933 from a Mr. D. Murray Rose. He tells of a story in an old book that spoke of the slaying of dragons and: "It goes on to say that Fraser killed the last known dragon in Scotland, but no one has yet managed to slay the monster of Loch Ness lately seen."
It was also in 1933, a time of depression and general misery that Mr. and Mrs. Mackay, owners of the Drumnadrochit hotel were travelling along the new road. According to their account they saw in the centre of the loch "an enormous animal rolling and plunging". Cynics may say that being the owners of the Drumnadrochit hotel, this couple may well have wanted to see a monster but apparently they did not tell this story widely, although they did tell it to a young water bailiff in Fort Augustus who happened to be a correspondent for the Inverness Courier newspaper.
Since then to the present day there have been many accounts of sightings. Such "evidence" as film footage of Nessie's humps travelling across the loch and the famous "Surgeon's" photograph taken by R. K. Wilson in 1934 have all since turned out to be fakes.
Sonar surveys of the loch using the latest equipment have failed to find any conclusive evidence of Nessie's existence, but neither have they proved that she doesn't exist. Some accounts may well have been sighted through the bottom of a whisky glass, but there are still a remarkable number of eye witness accounts that ring true.
By calling the Loch Ness Monster "Nessie", people show their ______ for it.
Who recorded the first sighting of the famous Loch Ness Monster?
How did Mr. D. Murray Rose get to know about the Loch Ness Monster?
According to the cynics, Mr. and Mrs. Mackay claimed to have seen the monster in order to ______.
By saying that "Some accounts may well... glass", the author means that some stories about the monster are ______.
Rich Americans are willing to take conspicuous consumption to new heights by spending big bucks to fly into space, including paying 100,000 for a 15-minute trip into the heavens, according to a poll released on Monday.
Possibly bored by the banal baubles (老套的小玩意) of mundane Mother Earth or inspired by the dashing derring-do of such pioneers as first American in space Alan Shepard and first millionaire in space Dennis Tito, the poll says 7 percent of rich Americans would pay 20 million for a two-week orbital flight and 19 percent would pay 100,000 for 15-minute sub-orbital flight.
The poll by Zogby International was commissioned by Futron Corp., a Maryland aerospace consulting group which has a 1.8 million contract with NASA to explore the commercial applications of space travel, including what space tourism could look like in the next 20 years.
Zogby International conducted telephone interviews with 450 Americans whose yearly incomes exceed 250,000 or whose net worth exceeds 1 million. The polls, conducted in January but only released Monday, has a margin of error of plus or minus 4.7 percent.
Futron's NASA project program manager Derek Webber said, "We commissioned this survey in order to get an idea of what rich people think and not the man in the street who loves the idea of going into space but can't afford it."
He added, "we are saying these trips will cost a minimum of 100,000 for a 15-minute trip, which was the amount of time the first American in space, Alan Shepard, had and for that you get to feel space weightlessness and see the world from up there." That trip would take a tourist 50 miles (80 kin) into space.
Webber said a surprising 7 percent of the wealthy polled said they would be willing to take a two-week flight to an orbiting space station, paying the 20 million that the Russians charged the two pioneering space tourists who have already made the trip, South African Mark Shuttleworth and American Dennis Tito.
If the price dropped to $50,000, 16 percent of those surveyed would be interested.
Space tourists would have to meet medical standards and only be able to go to the International Space Station.
'N Sync singer Lance Bass is currently undergoing tests to see if he could become the third space tourist. He wants to become the first entertainer in space.
Which of the following is a motive for the rich people to have space travel?
A Such travel gives them a chance to show off their wealth.
B Such travel is more exciting than any games they ever had.
C They want to have a more relaxing holiday by such travel.
D They want to prove they are as brave as any other people.
What does the Futron Corp want to find out by the poll?
A Whether space travel will be profitable.
B Whether space travel is technically practicable.
C What the public think about space travel.
D What cost people would pay for space travel.
Who is most likely to be chosen as the subject of Zogby's survey?
A Those who are conducting prosperous businesses.
B Those who are fascinated by thrilling extreme games.
C Those who admire the heroic deeds of Alan Shepard.
D Those who are healthy enough for space travel.
It was expected by Futron Corp that ______.
A not all the rich people would be willing to take the survey
B many rich people would be interested in space travel
C very few rich people would prefer the longer flight
D some rich people would suggest a price cut for the flight
What can we learn about the space tourists from the passage?
A The first Russian space tourist had a fifteen-minute flight into space.
B The only two millionaire space tourists are both from the United States.
C Both the millionaire space tourists visited an orbiting space station.
D A singer, but not a millionaire, is going to be the third space tourist.
With increasing prosperity, Western European youth is having a fling that is creating distinctive consumer and cultural patterns.
The result has been the increasing emergence in Europe of that phenomenon well known in America as the "youth market." This is a market in which enterprising businesses cater to the demands of teenagers and older youths in all their rock mania and pop-art forms.
In Western Europe, the youth market may appropriately be said to be in its infancy. In some countries such as Britain, West Germany and France, it is more advanced than in others. Some manifestations of the market, chiefly sociological, have been recorded, but it is only just beginning to be the subject of organized consumer research and promotion.
Characteristics of evolving European youth market indicate dissimilarities as well as similarities to the American youth market.
The market's basis is essentially the same--more spending power and freedom to use it in the hands of teenagers and older youth. Young consumers also make up an increasingly high proportion of the population.
As in the United States, youthful tastes in Europe extend over a similar range of products--records and record players, transistor radios, leather jackets and "way-out", extravagantly styled clothing, cosmetics and soft drinks. Generally it now is difficult to tell in which direction trans-Atlantic teenage influences are flowing.
Also, a pattern of conformity dominates Europe youth as in this country, though in Britain the object is to wear clothes that "make the wearer stand out," but also make him "in," such as tight trousers and precisely tailored jackets.
Worship and emulation of "idols" in the entertainment field, especially the "pop" singers and other performers is pervasive. There's also the same exuberance and unpredictability in sudden fad switches. In Paris, buyers of stores catering to the youth market carefully watch what dress is being worn by a popular television teenage singer to be ready for a sudden demand for copies. In Stockholm other followers of teenage fads call the youth market "attractive but irrational."
The most obvious differences between the youth market in Europe and that in the United States is in size. In terms of volume and variety sales, the market in Europe is only a shadow of its American counterpart, but it is a growing shadow.
The "youth market" is created so as to cater for ______.
A distinctive young consumers and their culture
B the enterprising businesses in Western Europe
C the increasingly prosperous European economy
D the emergence of an American phenomenon
What does the author think about the youth market in Britain, West Germany and France?
A It is more developed than that in Western Europe.
B It is still in its preliminary stage of development.
C More sociological phenomena of the market should be recorded.
D Consumer research and promotion should be based on the market.
The European youth market and the American one are similar in ______.
A the youth's spending power
B the youth's influences on the market
C the proportion of the youth population
D the kinds of products that interest the youth
What do we learn about the youth in Britain?
A Their dressing is dominated by a pattern of conformity.
B Their clothing is distinct from the other Europe youth's.
C Tight trousers and precisely tailored clothes are their favorites.
D They are influenced by the conformity derived from the U. S. A.
The author mentions the Paris and the Stockholm examples to illustrate ______.
A the prosperity of the youth market
B the craziness of the fashion followers
C the unpredictable change of fashion
D the popularity of the fashion idols
There is a proposal in Washington to set aside $100 million to support single mothers on welfare who want to get married. This novel idea is a (1) that some of our politicians are coming to understand that the state of our national union (2) greatly on the state of our (3) unions--on the health of the marriage institution in America.
Divorce rates remain very high by (4) standards, and the children of the first generation of easy divorce are well into their own adults lives. (5) all the statistics and anecdotal accounts of this vast subject, what are the key (6) that are leading to health or sickness for the institution of marriage? Where are we going wrong? And how can we get back on (7) ?
The central question is whether we have allowed a culture to develop that (8) people for the challenges of marriage. Social (9) on selfishness and self-centeredness, and the achievement-oriented (10) of our business world, all encourage us to put family in (11) place. Marriage often represents the (12) from such a world of selfishness to a world of (13) . Family life is the normal context (14) we can learn that a life filled with (15) about others instead of ourselves is the sure road (16) the most fulfilling joys and satisfactions. But (17) preparing young people to learn this lesson, often we actually seem to be preparing them more for divorce than for marriage. (18) ignorant of the mysteries of giving, too many people enter marriage (19) high expectations of direct personal satisfaction, and then find themselves (20) disappointed and tempted to cut their losses.
A As to
A from which
C by which
A in spite of
B instead of
C along with
D except for
It is proposed that ______ (经理亲自出差).
The new appointment of our president ______ (下个学期一开始就将生效).
You should report any incident, ______ (不论多么严重或轻微).
The old photos ______ (使我想起了我们一起度过的美好时光).
______ (在任何情况下你都不应该背叛) your family and friends.