Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled On Television Advertisement. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
On Television Advertisement
HIV Vaccine Feat Leaves More Questions Than Answers
Only hours after HIV vaccine researchers announced the achievement of a milestone that has eluded them for a quarter of a century, they began plotting their next steps—and coming back to reality. Their ultimate goal, halting the spread of AIDS, remains far in the future. A Thai and American team had announced early Thursday in Bangkok that they had found a combination of vaccines that provided modest protection against infection with HIV, offering the first proof of principle that the deadly disease could be tamed by teaching the immune system to recognize the virus and defeat it. Scientists around the world hailed the achievement.
But by Thursday afternoon, the initial wave of joy had given way to the recognition that many questions will have to be answered before researchers can produce a vaccine that will reliably shield people from HIV. For starters, it could take years to figure out the biological mechanisms that produced the apparent 31% reduction in infections among those given the vaccine treatment.
Researchers have never before observed antibodies(抗体) or other molecules in the blood that could block an infection of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Now they will try to figure out whether this combination of vaccines stimulated new molecules, or provoked an unusual blend of ones previously observed. Experts predicted that it would require 2 to 3 years of research to better understand how the vaccine worked, and an additional 5 to 10 years to produce a vaccine that was ready to test in people. Some researchers even wondered whether the apparent reduction in infections was simply a statistical mistake resulting from the small number of HIV cases observed in the trial.
The abundance of unanswered questions hasn't sapped the enthusiasm of many HIV researchers. After 26 years of seemingly futile research on vaccines, they have finally made some progress on demonstrating the feasibility of an HIV vaccine, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which largely funded the $120-million study. "This is the first positive signal—modest though it may be—that we have ever got with any vaccine that we have ever tested in humans," Fauci said. But "is it a vaccine that is ready for prime time? No."
The Thai trial, which began in 2003, had been laughed at by many critics as a waste of time and money because its two vaccines had produced no benefit in individual trials. But a few researchers speculated that using them together—with one vaccine priming (开始修复) the immune system and the second boosting that response would be more effective. The primer in this combination is Alvac, made by Sanofi Pasteur, which uses a harmless virus to carry three synthetic HIV genes into the body. The boost comes from Aidsvax, originally made by VaxGen Inc. and now owned by the nonprofit group Global Solutions for Infectious Diseases. It contains a genetically engineered version of a protein from the HIV surface.
The study, led by Dr. Supachai Rerks-Ngarm of the Thai Ministry of Public Health's Department of Disease Control, involved more than 16,000 volunteers in Thailand, all from the general population rather than from a pool of high-risk homosexuals and drug users used in past studies. Half received four priming doses of Alvac and two boost doses of Aidsvax over a six-month period; the other half received placebo(无效对照药) shots. After three years of follow-up, new HIV infections were observed in 74 of the 8,198 people who received the placebo, but in only 51 of the 8,197 given the vaccine, a statistically significant 31% reduction.
To the researchers' disappointment, however, the vaccine did not reduce levels of HIV activity in those who became infected after being vaccinated. The trial was carried out in Thailand because the initial research was conducted there and the vaccine was based on the version of HIV that circulates in that country. Full details of the study will be released next month at a conference in Paris, and researchers are eagerly awaiting them.
Dr. Salim S. Abdool Karim, an epidemiologist at Columbia University in New York and director of the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa in Durban, said he was particularly eager to know whether people who got vaccinated and stayed healthy had a bigger response from the white blood ceils known as cellular T lyrnphocytes(淋巴球). "A whole range of vaccines were developed on the hypothesis(假想) that they generated sufficient cellular T lymphocyte responses to prevent infection," he said. "We've never been able to test that hypothesis because no vaccine has worked until now."
And if it is not the lymphocytes, then "what kind of compounds were the cells making when you inoculate them with the vaccine?" asked Dr. Spyros Kalams an HIV immunology researcher at Vanderbilt University in Nashville and director of the HIV Vaccine Trials Program there. "Was it a compound that can kill infected cells? Does it make proteins that stop the virus from replicating?" Researchers now will begin the painstaking work of comparing the blood of those who were vaccinated and resisted infection and those who did not. Then they will look for molecules that are more abundant in the healthy people, Fauci said.
Once researchers identify these so-called correlates of immunity, they can begin to look for ways to prompt the body to make them—the key to producing an effective vaccine. The Thai results are "an opening of a door to answer some very important questions," he said. But several scientists cautioned that there was no guarantee the Thai blood samples would reveal the biological secrets of HIV immunity. Surely some of the people who resisted HIV infection were protected by the vaccine, but not all, said Dr. Otto Yang, an immunologist at UCLA's David Geffen School of Medicine.
Yang also expressed doubt that a combination of vaccines made the difference in those who benefited. He and others noted that this was the first large study to focus on a low-risk population. Perhaps transmitting the virus through heterosexual sex instead of directly into the bloodstream on an needle gives the immune system a better chance of fighting off infection. Although it is also unclear whether these particular vaccines could be used elsewhere in the world, scientists said that if they could figure out what made this combination work, they could localize the approach to other regions. The dominant HIV strains vary from region to region.
At least 33 million people worldwide are infected with HIV and 25 million have died, the World Health Organization said. An estimated 7,500 are infected each day, emphasizing the need for a vaccine. There have been three previous vaccine trials in humans. Aidsvax had previously failed in two large trials halted in 2003; both showed no benefit to recipients. Another trial by Merck ＆ Co. of a different vaccine was halted prematurely in 2007 when researchers found that the vaccine might increase the risk of contracting the virus.
According to Paragraph 1, we can learn that ______.
A scientists have made certain achievements in HIV vaccine
B HIV vaccine has been proved successful ultimately
C HIV vaccine has been proved useless
D HIV has already been decoded and defeated
The achievements for HIV vaccine has been given discount because ______.
A it causes a number of questions to answer
B it can't effectively protect people from HIV
C it can't be recognized by the people
D it is proved ineffective in treating HIV
The researchers are now trying to figure out ______.
A whether observed antibodies can block the infection of HIV
B whether the combination of vaccines stimulates new molecules
C whether the combination of vaccines can work well
D whether the combination of vaccines could be tested in normal people
The researchers had taken the Thai trial to be more effective by ______.
A injecting one vaccine for the immune system
B injecting two vaccines to boost the responses
C injecting one vaccine for the immune system and another to boost the responses
D putting three synthetic HIV genes into the body
The researchers were disappointed because ______.
A the vaccines haven't shown any effect on volunteers in Thailand
B the vaccines didn't stop the HIV infection on those who were vaccinated
C the vaccines were strongly rejected by the people in Thailand
D the vaccines' effects is waiting to be verified at conference in Paris
According to Dr. Salim, which of the following statement is true?
A Some people who got vaccinated kept healthy.
B A number of effective vaccines were developed just on the hypothesis.
C The hypothesis for vaccines has never worked well until now.
D The white blood cells are the root cause of HIV infection.
The researchers are looking afterwards for ______.
A the proteins to stop HIV virus
B the blood of those who were vaccinated
C the blood of those who were not vaccinated
D the molecules that are more abundant in healthy people
Verifying the correlates of immunity is the key to ______.
The vaccine made by Merck ＆ Co was halted in that it might ______.
This passage tells the breakthrough of HIV vaccine leaves us ______.
A Mike can't pass the exam.
B Mike doesn't need to study at all.
C Mike should get some fresh air in the morning
D Having a good rest will help Mike with the exam.
A Take the wallet to the reception desk.
B Look for the owner of the wallet in the company.
C Ask the receptionist for help.
D Put the wallet back in the elevator.
A Professor Smith will help Mary to take the course simultaneously.
B Mary will probably postpone taking the course of statistics.
C Mary will require taking the accounting course first.
D Mary will take the course of Professor Smith.
A To try playing a new game.
B Not to worry about his grades.
C To spend more time on his studies.
D To teach them how to play the games.
A He is not interested in the competition.
B He doesn't know if the super girl was successful.
C He can't follow the state competition.
D He thinks the super girl of last week was eliminated.
A In a library.
B In a cinema.
C In a literature class.
D In a history class.
A She will be absent in the next class.
B She will help the professor hand out the course outline.
C She will copy the outline by herself.
D She will go to the office of the professor.
A Her brother wants to rent a room with another person.
B Her brother can take the man to the picnic.
C Her brother wants to share his room with another person.
D Her brother wants someone else to go to the picnic with him.
A In a company.
B In a studio.
C In a classroom.
D At the woman's home.
A How to get successful in a job interview.
B What qualities a good interviewee should have?
C The importance of an interview.
D How to do well in a job?
A The behavior of the interviewee.
B The character of the interviewee.
C The tone of the interviewee.
D The appearance of the interviewee.
A Because it shows your politeness.
B Because it gives you another chance to emphasize your advantages.
C Because it will remind the interviewers of you.
D Because it is one of the ways you ask for the result of the interview.
A Write comments on the others' works.
B Give advice to each other.
C Write poems.
D Publish new works.
A He met her once on the campus.
B He met her in the publishing house.
C He saw her name in the campus literary review.
D They are both in the Students' Union.
A She will give lectures to them.
B She will persuade more professors to join the group.
C She will talk out her own experiences of publishing.
D She will list more people who might join the group.
A Reformers' suggestions.
B The coming of a large population from Europe.
C The expansion of industrial cities.
D The requirement of specific populations.
A Women and men studied in the same classes.
B The amount of time spent on formal education was limited.
C New regulations were imposed on nontraditional education.
D Most places required children to attend school.
A Different groups needed different kinds of education.
B Special programs should be set up to modernize students.
C Women should stay at home.
D More women should be involved in education and industry.
A More goods were produced than needed.
B Less goods were produced than needed.
C Immigrant women couldn't enjoy the right of educational.
D Immigrant women raised a lot of children.
A Grassland for animals.
B A land covered with trees.
C A steep slope of a hill.
D A land with fertile soil.
A To forbid grazing on marginal lands.
B To plant more trees on marginal lands.
C To establish good ground cover.
D To graze animals rotationally.
A Supporting the soil.
B Providing shade for animals.
C Loosening soil structure.
D Protecting the soil from wind and rain damage.
A To honor women pioneers.
B To encourage the students to pursue their dreams.
C To honor the September 11 attack.
D To make more heroes.
A Because many of the boys in single parent families are raised by their mothers.
B Because many boys like the stories of women pioneers.
C Because boys are more negative than girls.
D Because many of the boys are from minority populations.
A The quantity of single parent family in America.
B The push of Maria Brennan.
C The September 11 attack.
D The requirements of four schools.
When shopping online, it is important to bear a few basics in mind. Not only will these help keep you safe but they will also (1)________you find the best bargains possible, regardless of what you're looking to buy. The Internet is a completely different marketplace from live, face-to-face transacting, and this poses certain (2)________problems.
Firstly, make sure you know you can trust the seller. If you're buying from a private individual through an independent selling platform like an online (3) ________site, make sure you check their (4)________score or ratings to determine whether or not they are reliable. (5)________if you happen to buy from an online company, or branded website, make sure they are (6)________and carry secure ordering facilities. That way, you're less likely to get (7)________off by some unscrupulous seller, or to suffer from credit card (8)________At the end of the day, (9)_________________________________________________________, so make sure you have something concrete to suggest the seller's reliability before handing over your details.
Overall, (10)_________________________________________________________. Furthermore, provided you ensure the reliability of the seller, you can pick up some great shopping deals without too much research work or hassle. (11)_________________________________________________________ ; regardless of the products you want to buy.
There are more than 300 millions of us in the United States, and sometimes it seems like we're all friends on Facebook. But the sad truth is that Americans are lonelier than ever. Between 1985 and 2004, the number of people who said there was no one with whom they discussed important matters tripled, to 25 percent, according to Duke University researchers. Unfortunately, as a new study linking women to increased risk of heart disease shows, all this loneliness can be detrimental to our health.
The bad news doesn't just affect women. Social isolation in all adults has been linked to a series of physical and mental ailments, including sleep disorders, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of depression and suicide. How lonely you feel today actually predicts how well you'll sleep tonight and how depressed you'll feel a year from now, says John T. Cacioppo, a neuroscientist at the university of Chicago and coauthor of Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection. Studies have shown that loneliness can cause stress levels to rise and can weaken the immune system. Lonely people also tend to have less healthy lifestyles, drinking more alcohol, eating more fattening food, and exercising less than those who are not lonely.
Though more Americans than ever are living alone (25 percent of U.S. households, up from 7 percent in 1940), the connection between single-living and loneliness is in fact quite weak. "Some of the most profound loneliness can happen when other people are present," says Harry Reis, professor of psychology at the University of Rochester. Take college freshmen: even though they're surrounded by people almost all the time, many feel incredibly isolated during the first quarter of the school year with their friends and family members far away, Cacioppo says. Studies have shown that bow lonely freshmen will feel can be predicted by how many miles they are from home. By the second quarter, however, most freshmen have found social replacements for their high-school friends. Unfortunately, as we age, it becomes more difficult to recreate those social relationships. And that can be a big problem as America becomes a more transient society, with and increasing number of Americans who say that they're willing to move away from home for a job.
Loneliness can be relative: it has been defined as an aversive(反感的) emotional response to a perceived discrepancy between a person's desired levels of social interaction and the contact they're actually receiving. People tend to measure themselves against others, feeling particularly alone in communities where social connection is the norm. That's why collectivist cultures, like those in Southern Europe, have higher levels of loneliness than individualist cultures, Cacioppo says. For the same reason, isolated individuals feel most acutely alone on holidays like Christmas Eve or Thanksgiving, when most people are surrounded by family and friends.
From the first paragraph, we can learn the problem with America is that ______.
For all grown-ups, isolation from society can lead to ______.
Which two problems does loneliness cause?
Studies have indicated that the loneliness a freshman will suffer can be predicted by ______.
Lonely people can easily become lonelier because they tend to ______.
The Obesity is a national health crisis, one that—quite literally—weighs on us all. It costs lives. It costs dollars. And in the context of our current health-reform debate in Washington, it's time we took action, as a nation and as individuals, to address this cost.
While infectious disease was a disaster recently as our grandparents' generation, chronic disease is killing us and harming our well-being—and obesity is the root cause. The growth in obesity is strongly linked to heart disease, hypertension, and the explosion of diabetes that our country is currently experiencing. These and other chronic diseases account for 7 out of every 10 deaths each year and are the leading cause of death and disability in the U. S. They are also responsible for more than 75 percent of the nation's health-care spending.
Year after year, more Americans have become obese or overweight, now representing one third of the population. One in five 4-year-olds are obese, contributing to the fact that for the first time ever, children may have a shorter lifespan than their parents. But the obesity crisis isn't simply a health crisis; it is also an economic crisis—and the amount that it costs us in terms of lost lives, lost productivity, and lost dollars is staggering and deserves attention from our national leaders, and from us.
Obesity accounts for nearly 10 percent of what the U.S. spends annually on health care and is linked to about one third of the increase in domestic health spending since the mid-1980s. It is a huge cost driver in Medicare and Medicaid—so even if you or your family members are not obese, you, like the rest of us, are paying for this crisis. Were obesity at 1987 levels, Medicare spending would be $ 40 billion per year lower than it was in 2006. A University of Florida study found that health-care spending for 65-year-old men of normal weight was 6 to 13 percent less over the remainder of their lifetime than those who were overweight or obese.
At a time when Americans are on tight budgets and Congress is struggling to "find" savings to pay for health-care reform, it's easy to see why we need to make changes. Policy changes in Washington are a critical part of the solution. We need common-sense reforms in our health system (such as lowering co-pays on preventive care and offering programs to help overweight Americans), in our schools (such as reinstating: physical education and requiring school lunches to meet nutritional standards), in our workplaces (such as offering tax credits to employers that offer wellness benefits and encourage health inside and outside of the workplace), and in our communities (such as ensuring that all Americans have access to a place to be physically active and purchase healthy foods).
According to the passage, the Americans nowadays are faced with ______.
A the same ailment afflicted their grandparents' generation
B higher death rate caused by infectious diseases
C the problems caused by obesity
D lowering Midicare budgets compared to their grandparents' generation
What can we learn about obesity?
A The children are certain to live shorter lives than their parents because of obesiity.
B Obesity is the main cost driver in Midicare.
C Obesity imposes an economic burdon upon Americans.
D Those obese Americans are paying for the cost of obesity.
The study at a University of Florida indicated that ______.
A people of normal weight enjoyed longer lifespan than obese people
B the overweight people at 65 lost more on health-care over the rest of their lives
C the overweight people would cost 6% to 13% more than normal people
D the overweight people paid more health-care insurance than normal people
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A It is necessary to reform health system to help overweight Americans.
B It is necessary for students to strengthen their body and eat healthy food.
C It is possible for American workers to have health care for free.
D It is possible for all Americans to take part in physical activities and buy healthy food.
From the passage, we can infer that ______.
A the government has made some critical policy changes
B the government has encountered budget problem in health-care reform
C the government requires the schools to meet nutritional standards
D all Americans have realized the importance of losing weight
In recent years the potential of information technology to enhance teaching and learning has been demonstrated in virtually every discipline(学科). At the same time, most faculty have become comfortable using word processing programs, e-mail, and the World Wide Web, and a wider range of user-friendly software has become available. The 1998 National Survey of Desktop Computing and Information Technology in Higher Education revealed that the percentage of college classes using technology continues to increase, with 44. 4 percent using e-mail and 36 percent using presentation handouts.
These fairly common uses of technology in the higher education classroom, however, still do not capitalize on the real power of technology to make available real-world situations, aid visualization, facilitate collaborative activity among students, support analysis and synthesis of information, simulate complex environments, and provide continual feedback. These "deeper" uses of technology require conceptualizing the teaching and learning process in a different way and envisioning new instructional approaches that might assist students in attaining course goals.
Educational research reveals that new knowledge grows out of the process of relating new ideas to what we already know and exploring the interrelationships among ideas; new knowledge is not transmitted but is created by the learner. Also, knowledge is constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense out of their experiences and test their own understanding against that of others, notably those of teachers or more advanced peers. Technology can enhance learning by fostering the active processing and application of new ideas and by providing opportunities for students to engage in dialogue about ideas with their peers outside of class time.
Subsequent research at Western Michigan University also highlighted the importance of these factors. Faculty members on that campus were surveyed to identify factors that might influence the use of new instructional technologies. The most important factor identified was the need to be certain that technology would enhance student learning. Other important social factors were compatibility (兼容性) with the disciplines, advantages over traditional instruction, increased student interest, information on materials in the discipline, compatibility with existing course materials, and support from higher administration, chairpersons, and deans. Faculty were also asked to rate the importance of various incentives to use technology. Not surprisingly, released time, student and clerical support, and stipends were important incentives. In addition, however, faculty noted the importance of knowing that their efforts would contribute to promotion and tenure(任期) and would be recognized by the university community.
From the first paragraph, we can infer that ______.
A only 44.4% faculty are comfortable using word processing programs and e-mail
B 36% faculty are comfortable using desktop computing and information technology
C most faculty are familiar with information technology and the use of it is on the rise
D technology in higher education has penetrated into every discipline
Which of the following does NOT belong to "deeper" uses of technology according to the passage?
A To get information from World Wide Web.
B To aid visualization facilitate collective activity among students.
C Aid visualization and simulate complex environments.
D Support analysis and synthesis of information.
According to the writer, new knowledge may come from ______.
A relating new ideas to old ones
B advanced learners' ideas
C what we have already known
D making sense out of experiences
For what purpose does the writer cite the subsequent research made at Western Michigan University?
A To provide evidence for how new knowledge is produced.
B To show the university's progress in using technology.
C To elaborate on the factors influencing the use of new instructional technologies.
D To tell that new knowledge can be enhanced by technology
What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A Teachers welcome the imposition of technology uses.
B Higher administration's support is the most critical to the use of instrumental technologies.
C The teacher using instrumental technologies may have longer tenure.
D The instrumental technologies are easy to use.
Mars fascinates scientists because of its similarity to Earth, and it fascinates the public because our myth of "Martians" is a vision of life beyond Earth. The Mars (1) continues with the launch of a robot vehicle by UK scientists. It's part of a project to build an "autonomous robotic scientist" to (2) the Martian surface and is key to the European Space Agency's 2011 ExoMars (3)
The six-wheeled vehicle housing a myriad of scientific (4) and detectors is the Mars rover, nicknamed "Bridget". Astrium, an EADS company, are (5) the ExoMars rover prototype and coordinating its (6) with other UK-based institutions.
Searching for a (7) similar to that found on Mars, the team took the rover to E1 Teide National Park in Tenerife. Lester Waugh, leading the EADS Astrium team, explains, "The rover's not waterproof so the conditions need to be dry as any moisture affects the way the sand (8) under the wheels. "
Solar panels will supply power and radioisotope(放射性同位素) heater units will help it withstand the cold on Mars. The team is optimizing the performance of the wheels, suspension, the drive system, (9) it doesn't dig itself in on tricky terrain.
Taking (10) to twenty minutes for radio signals to reach Earth demands a powerful (11) system to allow the rover to operate (12) so they are also developing next generation computer software (13)
The rover will land on Mars packed to capacity (14) scientific gadgets designed to be as light and as small as possible. The (15) development time is essential for rigorous testing, as Waugh explains, " (16) we put things in apace we have to make sure that they'll (17) the radiation environment, the (18) of heat and cold. Our science (19) is crucial, and malfunctions may affect that. The more science we get back the better (20) there is for spending more money on planetary exploration.
In making such models, wonderful skill is called for, ______(也需要透彻了解植物的结构).
It is quite necessary to ______(把我们课堂上学的东西应用到实践当中).
Only when he saw the score in the exam ______(他才意识到他应该奋起直追了).
It is imperative that the government ______(吸引更多资金投入汽车业).
Since last year, Professor Wang ______(研究取得重大进展).