Directions: For this part , you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled False Advertisements. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
Why Winners Win at…
The new science of triumph in sports, business, and life.
As a quickly rising new star in professional tennis, Andre Agassi had undergone bitter failure by the early 1990's,losing games again and again. Things have changed since he hired the coach, Brad Gilbert. Gilbert criticized him for trying to play with perfection. Instead of risking a killer shot on every point, why not keep the ball in play and give the other guy a chance to lose? Gilbert told Agassi "It's all about your head. With your talent, if you're fifty percent game-wise, but ninety-five percent head-wise, you're going to win." Since that, Agassi began to pull out wins in matches that the old Agassi would have lost and got No.1 ranking at last. Because he had learned how to win.
What is it that separates winners from losers? The proper answer is that, in sports at least, winners simply have certain things that mortals don't, such as better physical conditions. But fitness doesn't tell the full story." There are more players that have the talent to be the best in the world than there are winners," says Timothy Gallwey, the author of several books about the mental side of tennis, golf, and other pursuits. "One way of looking at it is that winners get in their own way less. They interfere with the raw expression of talent less. And to do that, first they win the war against fear, against doubt, against insecurity-which are no minor victories. "
Defined that way, winning becomes translatable into areas beyond the physical: chess, spelling bees, the corporate world, even combat. The breadth of our definition for winning means that there is no single gene for victory across all fields. But neuroscientists(神经科学家) ,psychologists, and other researchers are beginning to better understand the highly interdisciplinary concept of winning, finding surprising links between brain chemistry, social theory, and even economics, which together give new insight into why some people come out on top again and again.
One area relating to winning is being disrupted. Scientists have long thought that dominance is largely determined by testosterone(睾丸激素); the more you have, the more likely you are to prevail. and not just on the playing field.
Last August, though, researchers at the University of Texas and Columbia found that testosterone is helpful only when regulated by small amounts of another hormone called cortisol(皮质醇).
Across Columbia's campus, professors at the business school are putting this dominance science into practice, collecting saliva (唾液) samples from M. B. A. students to measure both hormones. Each subject is then given a prescription to get the two steroids(类固醇)into ideal balance. The ideal leader, says Prof. Paul Ingram, is "calm, but with an urge towards dominance." It's true for both men and women, and in theory it all adds up to winning a contract, winning a promotion, winning the quarter.
New science like this illuminates winners of the past. It's a glance inside the blood stream of perhaps the most thrilling competitor to ever' destroy his opponents at a task: Bobby Fischer, the chess champion." For Fischer, there was a cruel desire to beat his opponent," says Liz Garbus, the director of the new documentary Bobby Fischer Against the World."Bobby took delight in how he made his opponent ill. " Before his legendary final match with the Russian player Boris Spassky in Iceland in 1972,which would determine the world's No.1 player, Fischer underwent extensive weight and endurance training; he told a strength coach that he wanted to physically break Spassky's hand the first time they shook. As the match approached, Fischer hesitated and would not show up, issuing increasingly bizarre demands and irritating his foe before play had even begun.
With the world watching, he did eventually arrive in Reykjavik (雷克雅未克=冰岛首都),and with the match tied 2 to 2,Fischer changed the move that he always opened with, which was the only structure Spassky had prepared for, and in this unfamiliar territory the Russian was helpless. Fischer followed with further aggression, Spassky never recovered. He managed just one win in the next 15 games, and Fischer and his mind and the testosterone-cortisol cocktail within were No.1 in the world.
What's better than winning'? Doing it while someone else loses. An economist at the University of Bonn has shown that test subjects who receive a given reward for a task enjoy it significantly more if other subjects fail or do worse-a finding that overthrew traditional economic theories that absolute reward is a person's central motivation.
Neuroeconomic studies often involve the dopamine(多巴胺)system, a part of the brain that is highly involved with rewards and reward anticipation. Dopamine receptors seem to track possibilities and how expected or unexpected they are. For fans, it helps to explain why a win by a No.1 seed over an unranked challenger is no big deal, while weak-side winners like the 1980 U.S. Olympic hockey team are so exciting.
A similar kind of expectation management occurs in the minds of athletes themselves, says Scott Huettel, the director of Duke University's Center for Neuroeconomic Studies. If you ranked an Olympic event's three medalists by happiness, the athlete winning gold obviously comes first. What's fascinating, Huettel says, is that the bronze medalist is second-most delighted, and the silver finisher is most frustrated. "People's brains are constantly comparing what happened with what could have happened," he says." A bronze medalist might say, ‘Wow, I almost didn't get a medal. It's great to be on the stand!” And the silver medalist is just thinking about all the mistakes he made that prevented him from winning gold."
All countries love winning, of course. But America, a nation born through victory on the battlefield, has a special relationship with the practice. "When you here, every one of you, were kids, you all admired the fastest runner, the toughest boxer, the big-league ballplayers, and the All-American football players." General George S. Patton once told a gathering of U.S. Army troops in England." Americans love a winner," Patton said loudly. "Americans will not tolerate a loser." The next day was June 6,1944,D-Day,and these were the men who would invade Normandy. We know where that one goes in the win-loss column.
But why do we admire winners-and put so much of our own happiness at risk when watching them compete? At some level of the brain, we think we are the guys in the competition. On Nov. 4.2008,the night of the most recent presidential election, neuroscientists at Duke and the University of Michigan gave a group of voters some chewing gum. They collected samples at 8 p.m. ,as the polls closed, and again at 11:30,as Barack Obama was announced the winner. Testosterone levels normally drop around that time of night, but not among Obama supporters-while testosterone declined in gum taken from the men who had voted for John McCain.
Vicarious(感同身受的) participation, the scientists concluded， mirrors what happens to the principal competitors themselves; the same thing happens in men who watch football and basketball--and, it follows, any other fiercely fought contest, from Andre Agassi's greatest matches to Bobby Fischer's run at the Russians. Why do Americans love a winner? Because it lets us love ourselves.
Gilbert's criticism for Agassi was that______.
A he didn't try his best to play tennis
B he gave his opponent too many chances
C he didn't master the basic techniques
D he always tried to play perfectly
People usually think that in sports. something like ______differentiates winners from losers.
A excellent skills
B better physical conditions
C passionate mood
D terrific natural talents
What do the players need to do first in order not to hinder their raw expression of talent?
A They need to take as much exercise as possible.
B They need to follow the coach's guidance exactly.
C They need to overcome fear, doubt and insecurity.
D They need to maintain a good mood in the court.
What did Fischer do to annoy hrs opponent before their final match even began?
A He hesitated and raised many unreasonable demands.
B He made negative remarks on his foe.
C He underwent much endurance exercise.
D He hurt his foe's hand when they shook.
When Fischer got tied with Spassky in the match, what did he do to defeat Spassky?
A He wore a new tie.
B He altered his usual opening move.
C He kept smiling in the match.
D He hired a new coach.
An economist at the University of Bonn finds in his test that______.
A people's central motivation is absolute reward
B people don't care about rewards but about the feelings
C winners are not happy if his partners fail
D winners enjoy his victory more if others fail
According to Huettel, in an Olympic event, the least happy one is ______after the game.
A the athlete taking the fourth place
B the bronze finisher
C the silver medalist
D the athlete winning the gold medal
General George S. Patton once made a speech to encourage his Army to achieve greater success before the day they______.
When the presidential election had just ended, the testosterone level of the supporters for John McCain______.
The phenomenon that the same thing happens in men who watch the games as in the players is called______.
A She agrees with the man.
B The man missed the last study session.
C She didn't understand the last chemistry class.
D The man should be more serious about his studies.
A It's too late to buy the morning newspaper.
B He doesn't want to go to the concert.
C The box office is closed today.
D All of the tickets have been sold out.
A Take the medicine as she was directed to do.
B Schedule another appointment with her doctor.
C Stop taking the medicine.
D Rest her back for a few days.
A Decide which movie to see.
B Order his food quickly.
C Go to a latter movie.
D Go to a different movie.
A She didn't get the man's massages.
B There is something wrong with her e-mail.
C She forgot to call the man.
D She couldn't remember the man's phone number.
A She has already started working on her research project.
B She can't decide which to choose about the research topic.
C She would like to discuss her research with the man.
D She has to change the subject of her research.
A He forgot to bring his jacket.
B He had no more clothes to wear.
C He didn't know whether it would be cold.
D He didn't have time to look for his jacket.
A She fell asleep before the program ended.
B She especially enjoyed the end of the program.
C She missed the beginning of the program.
D She wishes she had gone to sleep earlier.
A An experiment in Antarctica.
B The breaking-off of the Larsen Ice Shelf.
C The formation of the Larsen Ice Shelf.
D An expedition to Antarctica.
A They could be a sign of global warming.
B They are disturbing Antarctic bird habitats.
C They have destroyed research facilities.
D They contradict current scientific theories.
A No melting has been observed recently.
B The past several winters have been unusually severe.
C Nothing unusual has happened in other parts of Antarctica.
D The ice shelf has remained intact despite the weather changes.
A They can accelerate the speed of the wind.
B They make the continent a pleasant place for humans.
C They cool the wind and thus slow down melting.
D They cool the weather and freeze all the water.
A Take a cosmetic surgery and go hunting.
B Have an advertisement survey there.
C Go to fulfill an important appointment.
D Visit some of her friends and clients there.
A She wants to change her image in life.
B She is going to look for another job.
C She wants to look young to be competitive.
D She wants to keep healthy and stay happy.
A Some precious metals.
B Silver and gold.
C Various expensive metals.
D Some inexpensive metals.
A They are circulated in different markets.
B They are issued in different face values.
C They have different commodity value.
D They are used by various people.
A They wanted to reserve some gold and silver.
B There was neither enough gold nor enough silver.
C New coins were easier to be made.
D They could make a profit.
A During their employment.
B When they have found a job.
C During their childhood.
D When they are in college.
A To choose some courses for their children.
B To help their children read online.
C To tell children to work hard.
D To show respect to children's interest.
A To develop their own hobbies.
B To understand their future career.
C To know something about the media.
D To make their own friends.
A Whether the program is good for the children.
B Whether the show is interesting.
C Whether the show is related to parenting.
D Whether the children like this channel.
A The need to exercise the memory.
B How the brain differs from other body tissues.
C The unconscious learning of a physical activity.
D How nerves control body movement.
A Repeat it aloud.
B Write it down.
C Make a mental picture of it.
D Practice recalling it.
A Ask questions about the memories.
B Give an example of active learning.
C Explain recent research on memories.
D Make assignments about memories.
Abraham Maslow asserts that all human have basic needs and that these needs can be arranged in a hierarchy, that is, people don't (1)__________ themselves with higher-level needs until lower-level needs are satisfied. Maslow termed the two levels of needs at the bottom of the hierarchy physiological(生理的) needs and safety needs. People's physiological needs are for air, water, and food. Their safety needs are for security and (2)__________ . Maslow called these two levels survival needs; satisfaction of these needs is necessary for basic human (3)__________ .
Once survival needs are (4)__________ ,the higher-level needs which are called psychological needs-the need to belong, the need for esteem, and the need for self-actualization--become (5)__________ important. These needs may affect people's group memberships throughout their lives.
Once people have satisfied their basic survival, physiological and safety needs, they turn their (6)__________ to a social or belongingness need. People need to feel that they are a part of some groups. Relationships such as friendships. romantic (7) __________ and families help satisfy this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community or (8) __________ groups.
After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem need becomes more important. (9)__________________________________________
Finally. people have a need for self-actualization. This need differs from the first four needs. The former needs (10)__________________________________________ actualization is called a being need, which involves people trying to be all that they can be and living life to be fullest. (11)__________________________________________
Rosenstock-Huessy began teaching at Harvard and converted his lectures into English. He noticed, though, that his students weren't grasping his points. His language was not the problem, it was the allusions (典故；暗示). He used literary and other allusions when he wanted to talk about ethics, community, mysticism and emotion. But none of the students seemed to get it. Then, after a few years. he switched to sports analogies. Suddenly, everything clicked.
"The world in which the American student who comes to me at about twenty years of age really has confidence in is the world of sport," he would write. "This world embodies all of his virtues and experiences, affection and interests; therefore, I have built my entire sociology around the experiences an American has in athletics and games."
Rosenstock-Huessy was not the last academic to recognize that sport organizes the moral thinking of many young Americans. Professor Michael Allen Gillespie of Duke University has just written a fascinating essay, for an anthology called "Debating Moral Education", on the role of sports in American ethical training.
Throughout Western history, Gillespie argues, there have been three major athletic traditions. First, there was the Greek tradition. Greek sports were highly individualistic. There was little interest in teamwork. Instead sports were supposed to cultivate noble virtues like courage and endurance, They gave individuals a way to achieve eternal glory.
Then, there was the Roman tradition. In ancient Rome, free men did not fight in the arena. Roman sports were a spectacle organized by the government. The free Romans watched while the slaves fought and were slaughtered. The entertainment emphasized the awesome power of the state.
Finally, there was the British tradition. In the Victorian era, elite schools used sports to form a hardened ruling class. Unlike the Greeks, the British placed tremendous emphasis on team play and sportsmanship. If a soccer team committed afoul, it would withdraw its goalkeeper to permit the other team to score. The object was to instill (逐渐灌输) a sense of group loyalty. honor and rule-abidingness-traits that were important to a class trying to manage a far-flung empire.
Gillespie argues that the American sports atmosphere is a fusion of these three traditions. American sport teaches that effort leads to victory, a useful lesson in a work-oriented society, Sport also helps Americans navigate the tension between team loyalty and individual glory. We behave like the British, but think like the Greeks, A. Bartlett Giamatti, a former baseball commissioner, once observed.
Gillespie appreciates the way sports culture has influenced American students. It discourages complaining, and rewards self-discipline. It teaches self-control and its own form of justice, which has a more powerful effect than anything taught in the classroom.
Rosenstock-Huessy's students couldn't get his points because
A his language was quite abstract and complex
B the course itself was difficult to comprehend
C they didn't like him and his ways of teaching
D they were not interested in the allusions he used
What was the feature of Greek sports tradition:
In Roman sports tradition, free men did not fight in the arena because
A they were fearful that they couldn't defeat the slaves
B they were forbidden to kill the slaves in this way
C they believed watching sports reflected the power of the upper class
D they were not allowed to participate in the sports
Which of the following is encouraged by the British sports tradition?
A To nurture noble virtues.
B To cultivate a sense of loyalty.
C To show respect to the state power.
D To emphasize the role of work in life.
What does Gillespie think of American sports culture?
A Americans can learn more things from it.
B It exerts good influences on students.
C It is superior to any other sports traditions.
D It has an effect on other sports traditions.
Earthquakes. Cyclones (龙卷风), Tsunamis (海啸). Floods. Mudslides (泥石流). Natural disasters have doubled infrequency over the last two decades. Catastrophes have also become more intense, destructive and threatening to human life. In 2008 alone, some 36 million people were suddenly displaced by these phenomena.
While that is an enormous figure. it is dwarfed by the number of people whose security and livelihoods are being steadily undermined by the longer-term consequences of climate change: droughts and unpredictable rainfall patterns, the degradation and desertification of the land, coastal erosion and salinification (盐化) .
A particularly disturbing characteristic of these developments is their potential to ignite conflicts within and between states, especially in situations where communities are competing for increasingly scarce resources such as fresh water and grazing land.
We are now confronted with a number of global general trends that interact with each other. In addition to climate change, they include population growth, migration, urbanization and food, water and energy insecurity, all compounded by the global economic crisis.
As U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has frequently reminded us, climate change is at the fulcrum (支点) of these trends, multiplying the impacts of the others.
Attempting to deal with these trends individually would doom the effort to failure. They require a common response, which often eludes (避开, 使…达不到) the international community.
Traditionally, the international community has responded to disasters and displacement in "humanitarian emergency mode", establishing camps, distributing food and water, building schools and clinics.
We must reconsider our approach. The billions of dollars spent on international relief over the past three or four decades have generally not achieved the sustainable improvements to local capacity that one would have hoped for.
At the same time, a growing proportion of the people affected by disaster and displacement will in future be found in urban areas, where it makes no sense to accommodate victims in camps.
A development-oriented approach is now required in response to displacement, emphasizing the inclusion of the most vulnerable and marginalized sections of society in efforts to ensure that they benefit from the livelihoods, services and security to which they are entitled.
Recent experience suggests that the majority of people who are forced to move as a result of these phenomena are likely to remain within the borders of their own country. Primary responsibility for their protection and well-being will thus lie with the states concerned.
But if governments in developing regions are to meet the needs of displaced citizens, they will need strong and long-term support from the world's industrialized and industrializing states-those countries that bear primary responsibility for the process of climate change.
What can make larger number of people suffer from displacement according to the passage?
A Natural catastrophes.
B Social development.
C Ever-Iasting effect of climate change.
D International conflicts.
What might cause international conflicts acceding to the passage?
A Global general trends.
B The lack of natural resources.
C Dissatisfied emotion among people.
D Global warming and greenhouse effect.
How can we deal with the global general trends successfully?
A We should handle them by means of individual efforts.
B We should combine individual efforts to reach a common response.
C We should cope with climate change in the first place.
D We should take another emergency mode to deal with disasters.
What does the author think about the current approach of handling displacement?
A It can't promote sustainable improvements in the long run.
B It can relieve the consequences caused by disasters.
C It can maintain the sustainability of the local area.
D It can have an effect on urban disasters and displacement.
The author wrote this passage to______.
A indicate the consequences of climate change
B let people be aware of the natural disasters
C let people pay more attention to the displaced people
D call for a sustainable approach to global trends
It's generally accepted that there is a correlation between a child's educational attainment and a family's poverty level, but new research shows that the problem may take root earlier than previously thought.
A new study in Psychological Science found that at 10 months old, children from poor families performed just (1) children from wealthier families, but by the time they turned 2, children from wealthier families were scoring (2) higher than those from poorer ones.
"Poor kids aren't even doing as well (3) school readiness, sounding out letters and doing other things that you would expect to be (4) to early learning." Elliot M. Tucker-Drob of the University of Texas at Austin, lead author of the study, said in a press (5) .
To (6) the study, researchers (7) the mental abilities of about 750 pairs of fraternal(异卵的) and identical (同卵的) twins from all over the U.S. The participants' socioeconomic (8) was determined based on parents' educational attainment, occupations and family income.
Each child was asked to (9) tasks that (10) pulling a string to ring a bell, placing three cubes in a cup, matching pictures and sorting pegs by color first at 10 months and (11) when they were 2 years old. At this time, researchers discovered that during the 14-month window between the aptitude tests, gaps in (12) development had started to occur. Children from wealthier families had started to consistently outperform those from poorer ones.
Researchers (13) to disprove a genetic explanation by (14) the aptitude tests of each set of twins.
The (15) of the comparison is that children's genetic (16) is oppressed by poverty, though the study stopped short of drawing a scientific (17) as to what specifically was causing the achievement (18) . Researchers did assume that, (19) speaking, poorer parents may not have the time or (20) to spend playing with their children in stimulating ways.
A as well as
B as closely as
C on account of
D on behalf of
A in accordance with
B in case of
C in contrast to
D in terms of
I spent several months on this project ______ (却发现所有都是徒劳).
______(每当他听到那首优美的旋律),he would recall the vast grassland he went to several years ago.
We will organize diversified cultural and educational programs to_________(满足人民的需要).
Why do these news programs ________________(一直都详细描述谋杀和暴力)?
______(出席今年奥斯卡颁奖典礼的) were hundreds of film stars including Tom Hanks, Nicholas Cage, Kevin Spacey.
Are passwords out of fashion? It's starting to seem like it. Everybody hates them, and nobody can remember all the ones they've created. These days a typical netizen (网民)has dozens of online accounts. If you really want to be safe, you need to have a different password for each one, and each password needs to be incredibly complicated, with a mix of capital letters, symbols, and numbers. Who can keep all that stuff in their heads?
Most people don't bother. Some just make up one password and use it everywhere. Others might have a few passwords'--one for all their banking and financial stuff, one for their social networks. one for email. Problem is that if one site gets hacked, the bad guys now have the password that you use elsewhere. These hacks are happening so frequently these days that you might as well assume there is no way to keep a password secret.
Computer scientists realize the system is broken, and they're looking for alternatives. But most attempts haven't been very good. Fingerprint readers require special hardware, and a lot of people find them strange and don't want to use them. Smart cards and tokens can be lost or stolen." We've tried all sorts of other approaches, but we end up back with passwords. They're the least worst in a series of bad options," says Rich Mogull, CEO of Securosis, a security consultancy.
Markus Jakobsson, a veteran security researcher with a Ph. D. in computer science, has come up with something he calls "fast words”'. Instead of inventing a complicated password, you join three simple words that come from a thought known only to you. If one day you were driving to work and ran over a frog that ended up flat, you might choose "frog work flat. "
Some advantages: You can enter the three words in any order ("flat frog work"),and the system still knows that you're you. If you totally blank, the fastword system will tell you one of the three words, which should enable you to remember the original thought and thus the three keywords. Jakobsson says one large service provider is evaluating the fastwords concept.
Fastwords represents a step in the right direction, but it's not the promised land. Someone, somehow, needs to come up with something radically different-and radically better-than what we have today.
To be safe, one is advised to have a ______password for each online account.
We may assume it is very hard to keep a password safe because of the ______hacks.
After trying all kinds of other ways, computer scientists find passwords are______ than other bad options.
One advantage of Jakobsson's " fastwords" is that you can input the three words ______.
Even though fastwords is not the final solution, it is a step ______.