Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Conservation in collage Campuses. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
Conservation in collage Campuses
Directions: In this part, you, will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-7, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with in formation given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the in formation given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVES) if the in formation is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the in formation given in the Passage.
For a long time, researchers have tried to nail down just what shapes us-or what, at least, shapes us most. And over the years, they've had a lot of eureka moments (突发灵感的时刻). First it was our parents, particularly our mothers. Then it was our genes. Next it was our peers, who show up last but hold great sway. And all those ideas were good ones-but only as far as they went. Somewhere, there was a sort of temperamental(捉摸不定) dark matter exerting an invisible gravitational pull of its own. More and more, scientists are concluding that this unexplained force is our siblings.
From the time they are born, our brothers and sisters are our scolds, protectors, tormentors, playmates, counselors, sources of envy, objects of pride. Our spouses arrive comparatively late in our lives; our parents eventually leave us. Our siblings may be the only people we'll ever know who truly qualify as partners for life. Siblings are with us for the whole journey.
At research centers in the U. S., Canada, Europe and elsewhere, scientists are gaining intriguing insights into the people we become as adults. Does the student struggling with a professor who plays favorites summon up the coping skills acquired from dealing with a sister who was Daddy's girl? Do husbands and wives benefit from the inter-gender negotiations they waged when their most important partners were their sisters and brothers? Today serious work is revealing exactly how our brothers and sisters influence us.
Why childhood fights between siblings can be good
By the time children are 11, they devote about 33% of their free time to their siblings-more time than they spend with friends, parents, teachers or even by themselves. Adolescents, who have usually begun going their own way, devote at least 10 hours a week to activities with their siblings. Siblings are like the nurses on the ward. All that proximity breeds an awful lot of intimacy—and an awful lot of friction.
Laurie Kramer, professor of applied family studies at the University of Illinois has found that, on average, sibs between 3 and 7 years old engage in some kind of conflict 3.5 times an hour. Kids in the 2-to-4 age group top out at 6.3—or more than one clash every I0 minutes, according to a Canadian study.
But as much as all the fighting can set parents' hair on end, there's a lot of learning going on too, specifically about how conflicts, once begun, can be settled. Shaw and his colleagues conducted a years-long study and found that the kids who practiced the best conflict-resolution skills at home carried those abilities into the classroom. "Siblings have a socializing effect on one another," Shaw says. "Unlike a relationship with friends, you're stuck with your sibs. You learn to negotiate things day to day. "
It's that permanence, researchers believe, that makes siblings a rehearsal tool for later life. Somewhere in there is the early training for the e-mail joke that breaks an office silence or the husband who signals that a fight is over by asking his wife what she thinks they should do about that fast-approaching vacation anyway. "Sibling relationships are where you learn all this," says developmental psychologist Susan McHale of Penn State University. "They are relationships between equals."
How not being Mom's favorite can have its advantages
Parents feel a lot of guilt over the often evident if rarely admitted preference they harbor for one child over another. If favorites exist, however, it may be not the parents' fault, but evolution's.
It is found that 65% of mothers and 70% of fathers exhibited a preference for one child—in most cases, the older one. What's more, the kids know what's going on. They all say, "Well, it makes sense that they would treat us differently, because he's older or we're a boy and a girl." But at a deeper level, second-tier children may pay a price. "They tend to be sadder and have more self-esteem questions," Conger says. "They feel like they're not as worthy, and they're trying to figure out why."
It's no accident that employees in the workplace instinctively know which person to send into the lion's den of the corner office with a risky proposal or a bit of bad news. And it's no coincidence that the sense of hurt feelings and adolescent envy you get when that same colleague emerges with the proposal approved and the boss's applause seems so familiar. But what you summon up with the feelings you first had long ago is the knowledge you gained then too—that the smartest strategy is not to compete for approval but to strike a partnership with the favorite and spin the situation to benefit yourself as well.
Why your sibling is—or isn't—your best role model
It's no secret that brothers and sisters emulate one another or that the learning flows both up and down the age ladder. Younger siblings mimic the skills and strengths of older ones. Older sibs are prodded(刺激、督促) to attempt something new because they don't want to be shown up by a younger one who has already tried it. More complex—and in many ways more important—are those situations in which siblings don't mirror one another but differentiate themselves—a phenomenon psychologists call de-identification.
De-identification has an important function: pushing some sibs away from risky behavior. Siblings pass on dangerous habits to one another in a depressingly predictable way. But some kids break the mold—and for surprising reasons. Joseph Rodgers, a psychologist, found that while older brothers and sisters often do introduce younger ones to the habit, the closer they are in age, the more likely the younger one is to resist. Apparently, their proximity in years has already made them too similar.
How a sibling of the opposite sex can affect whom you marry
Far subtler—and often far sweeter—than the risk-taking modeling that occurs among all sibs is the gender modeling that plays out between opposite-sex ones. Brothers and sisters can be fierce de-identifiers. In a study of adolescent boys and girls, the boys unsurprisingly scored higher in such traits as independence and competitiveness while girls did better in characteristics like sensitivity and helpfulness. What was less expected is that when kids grow up with an opposite-sex sibling, such exposure doesn't temper (使变淡) gender-linked traits but stress them. Both boys and girls are closer still to gender stereotype and even seek friends who conform to those norms.
The guys who had older sisters had more involving interactions and were liked significantly more by their new female acquaintances. Women with older brothers were more likely to strike up a conversation with the male stranger and to smile at him more than he smiled at her.
How those early bonds can grow stronger with age
One of the greatest gifts of the sibling tie is that while warmth grows over time, the conflicts often become less and less. Indeed, siblings who battled a lot as kids may become closer as adults—and more emotionally skilled too, often clearly recalling what their long-ago fights were about and the lessons they took from them.
Such powerful connections become even more important as the inevitable illnesses or widowhood of late life leads us to lean on the people we've known the longest. Even siblings who drift apart in their middle years tend to drift back together as they age. "The relationship is especially strong between sisters," who are more likely to be predeceased(比...先死) by their spouses than brothers are, says Judy Dunn, a developmental psychologist. "When asked what contributes to the importance of the relationship now, they say it's the shared early childhood experiences, which cast a long shadow for all of us."
Of course, siblings are one of nature's better brainstorms, and all the new studies on how they make us who we are one of science's. But the rest of us, outside the lab, see it in a more primal way. In a world that's too big, too scary and too often too lonely, we come to realize that there's nothing like having a band of brothers—and sisters to venture out with you.
The whole passage mainly talks about the influences siblings have on the qualities of each other.
According to the passage, all the factors including our blood relationship, genes and peers decide what shapes us.
Children who are good at dealing with the frictions with their brothers/sisters will resolve the conflict with their classmates well.
According to researchers, the long-time connection between siblings plays a training role for their future life.
Most parents admit having a strong preference over the older child because they tend to be sadder.
Younger siblings emulate the skills and strengths of older ones because they think they are more knowledgeable than themselves.
If the ages of the siblings are closer, the younger ones intend to resist the habits introduced by the older ones.
Seriously de-identified as brothers and sisters, there is often a subtler and sweeter ______ between opposite-sex ones.
With time going on, the warmth between sibs keeps increasing and the frictions ______.
It is ______ that makes the connection between sibs important and strong.
A He is going to visit his dead uncle and sister-in-law.
B He is going to start trading company for his sister-in-law.
C He is going to look for opportunities for his trading company.
D He is going to inherit trading company from his sister-in-law.
A To buy some tools needed to repair the calculator.
B To ask the repair store to repair the calculator.
C To hit the display until it mobilized.
D To figure out what is wrong with the calculator.
A The man hasn't succeeded in painting any pictures yet.
B The man has come to a new understanding of painting pictures.
C The woman is good at painting pictures.
D The woman has refused the man's application to paint pictures.
A The woman is eager to enter politics.
B The man has worked for the government.
C People will become old after entering politics.
D Female politicians are rare.
A Being forgotten.
B Being identical to other people.
C Being insignificant.
D Running certain risks.
A Her employees get low scores on the test of EQ.
B Her employees can't take the advantage of high IQ.
C Her employees are too smart according to the test.
D Her employees are concerned with emotional problems.
A The man is expecting to visit Disneyland.
B The woman is fond of visiting Disneyland.
C Disneyland hasn't provided enough signs everywhere.
D Disneyland will have subway and buildings.
A Work in this area is easy and relaxing.
B There are too many criminals and the work is challenging.
C The job is challenging and the pay is high.
D It is easy for him to find job after graduation.
A An air crash to Los Angeles.
B A book written by a doctor.
C A disease on the comeback and its reasons
D Man's effort to prevent disease.
A Buenos Airs.
B New York.
C San Francisco.
D New Orleans.
A Breakdown of public health.
B International travel and commerce.
C Man's eating habits.
D Processing methods of food.
A Drug addiction.
B A headache.
D The woman's suggestion.
A From a drug dealer.
B Without the doctor's prescription.
C Legally from the doctor.
D From the woman.
A Pain-relievers have little harm.
B Pain-relievers can be addictive.
C Heroin and morphine are addictive.
D Not all people who try to get pain-relievers have an ache.
A He thinks that it's helpful.
B He is scared and thinks that it's terrible.
C He thinks that it's reasonable to stop taking pain-killers.
D He will take notice to the doctor because the doctor is a drug dealer.
A It can be used to fight pains.
B It can be used to reduce high body temperature.
C It can be used to help blood pass through blockage.
D It can be used to stop heart attacks or strokes.
A It has shown that aspirin can improve survival in colon cancer patients.
B It has shown that colon cancer had not spread to other parts of the body.
C It has shown that aspirin users increased thirty percent risks from their cancer.
D It has shown that aspirin had been discovered for eleven years.
A A controlled study.
B A trial study.
C An observational study.
D A successful study.
A Books and resources.
B Books and periodicals.
C Audio and video material.
D Audio and periodicals.
A They can be borrowed for three weeks by full-time students.
B They contain current abstracts and indexed journals, general English.
C They can be taken out of the library under any circumstance.
D They can provide full selection of supplementary material.
A Photocopy service.
C Computer service.
A She succeeded in investing.
B She was knowledgeable for arts.
C She succeeded in paintings.
D She disliked books and arts.
A He exhibited his painting at Universal Exhibition.
B He was criticized for being Communist Party.
C He was considered to represent the revolutionary workers.
D He had created his own exhibition instead of Universal Exhibition.
A Because she needn't care the house.
B Because she needn't to earn money.
C Because she wanted to get funny from art.
D Because she regarded art as her career.
A The Louvre museum.
B The Paris Salon.
C The French Academy of Fine
D The Universal Exhibition
Respect begins within the individual. The original state of respect is (1)______on awareness of the self as a unique being. The elevated (2)______of knowing "who I am" arises from a real place of pure worth. With such insight, there is faith in the self and wholeness and completeness within. With self-realization, one experiences true self-respect.
(3)______takes place when the awareness of one's original nature and the original of the other is lacking. As a result, external (4)______influences rule supreme over respect. To be stabilized in the elevated stage of the self ensures genuine respect for and from others, since one acts in the consciousness that every human being has innate worth which is pure and (5)______. Such a mindset guarantees final victory, since interaction on that basis (6)______that the internet goodness of the self and the other emerges.
To develop the value of respect within the self and to give it practical expression in daily life is the (7)______. Obstacles are encountered to test the strength of respect, and these are often felt at the most (8)______times. (9)____________________________________________________________________. In situations when all supports seem to have vanished, what remains loyal is the extent to which one has been able to become self-reliant intently.
(10)____________________________________________________________________. There must be recognized as the central focus to draw from people a commitment to a higher purpose in life. (11)____________________________________________________________________ The eminence of life is present in everyone, and every human being has a right to the joy of living with respect and dignity.
Recently a sociologist from the University of New Hampshire, Murray Straus, presented a paper suggesting that corporal punishment leaves a long-lasting mark — in the form of lower IQ. Straus found that kids who were physically punished had up to a five-point lower IQ score than kids who weren't — the more children were spanked, the lower their IQ — and that the effect could be seen not only in individual children, but across entire nations. Straus found that countries with higher GDP tended to be those where corporal punishment was used less often. In the U. S., the tendency to hit also varies with income, along with geography and culture.
So how might getting spanked on the butt actually affect the workings of the brain? Straus notes that being spanked or hit is associated with fright and stress; kids who experience that kind of trauma have a harder time focusing and learning.
It's not clear if spanking causes lower cognitive ability or if lower cognitive ability might somehow lead to more spanking. It's quite possible that kids with poor reasoning skills misbehave more often and therefore elicit harsher punishment. "It could be that lower IQ causes parents to get angry and hit more," Straus says, "I believe the relationship is probably bidirectional." "There has to be something the kid is doing that's wrong that leads to corporal punishment. The problem is, when the parent does that, it seems to have counterproductive results to cognitive ability in the long term." says Straus.
One problem with Straus' data is that some of the parents who tended to spank may also have been engaging in actual physical abuse of their children. Researchers define corporal punishment as physical force intended to cause pain — but not injury — for the purpose of correcting a child's behavior, not simply hurting him. Studies have shown that very few parents who use corporal punishment also beat their kids, but Straus can't rule the possibility that his data is confounded by the presence of child abuse, which past research has shown to affect victims' development.
The practice has its defenders. In the 1990s, the American Academy of Pediatrics underwent a bitter fight before finally declaring in 1998 that "corporal punishment is of limited effectiveness and has potentially deleterious side effects." Sometimes spanking seems like the only way to get through to an unruly toddler. But the price for fixing his poor short-term conduct might be an even more troublesome outcome in the future.
According to Straus, the occurring rate of corporal punishment in America tends to be affected by
Children who gets spanked might get trouble in ______.
Straus believes that the relationship between ______ is probably bidirectional.
Before Straus presented his paper, it has already been proved that ______. may affect the development of children.
What is the author's attitude toward spanking?
An accidental discovery has brought seismologists(地震学家) one step closer to being able to predict earthquakes. As part of an unrelated effort to measure underground changes caused by shifts in barometric pressure (大气压力), a team of researchers found that increases in subterranean pressure (地下压力) preceded earthquakes along California's San Andreas Fault(断层) by as much as 10 hours. If follow-up tests advance the findings, seismologists may eventually be able to provide a few hours' notice for people to find safe places prior to quakes.
Researchers used a high-tech equivalent of a stereo speaker lowered into a bore hole near Parkfield, Calif., a half-mile deep and five yards from a measuring device. For two months beginning in late 2005, researchers transmitted pulse signals three times per second, from the speaker to the measuring device, calculating travel time between the two stations. Surprised scientists learned the seismic waves slowed dramatically on only two occasions: two hours prior to a magnitude-1 temblor (地震), and a startling 10 hours before a magnitude-3 quake.
The research team theorizes that the immense amount of pressure building along the fault causes small cracks within the rock during the final hours before an earthquake, increasing rock density and slowing the transmission signals. "The more cracks you have, the slower the seismic velocity," says study co-author Paul Silver, a geophysicist with the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Still unknown is whether there is any significance to the fact that the magnitude-3 quake had a much longer pre-seismic signal than the lower-magnitude quake, or whether it was simply because its magnitude was larger and its epicenter closer to the sensors.
If scientists can flesh out the new findings during future earthquakes — a two-year study at the same seismically active location begins this September —it could form the basis of a vastly improved early-warning system for quakes. Current earthquake-warning systems give just a few seconds' notice because they detect only P-waves, the fast-moving seismic waves that precede the more destructive waves released during a quake. Upgrading to a seismic stress meter, however, is still a long way off. Researchers hope to test whether the stress signals would still be detectable on a larger scale, with the two sensors spaced more than a few yards apart.
Barring a major effort to drill multiple, half-mile-deep holes along fault lines, researchers would also need to develop a surface-based detection system capable of filtering out temperature swings and other "noise" that could confuse their seismic readings.
The passage mainly tells us about ______.
A the importance of predicting earthquakes
B a new method to predict earthquakes
C the great damages caused by earthquakes
D a traditional method to predict earthquakes
The new way to predict earthquake might work by ______.
A measuring barometric pressure
B measuring underground pressure
C studying pre-seismic signals
D detecting seismic waves
Researchers have found that ______.
A the quantity of cracks decides the speed of an earthquake
B the larger amount of pressure, the faster the transmission signals are
C the larger the magnitude is, the longer pre-seismic signals an earthquake have.
D the stress signal is detectable with two sensors a few yards away from each other
It can be learnt from the passage that the current method of earthquake prediction ______.
A provides more accurate data than the new one
B costs less than the new one
C costs more than the new one
D warns people only a few seconds before the earthquake
Which of the following statement is NOT about the two-year study?
A Researchers will test in more seismically active places.
B Researchers will drill more deep holes along the fault lines.
C Researchers need to eliminate some factors which might affect seismic readings.
D Researchers need to do more in their detecting systems.
Should a leader strive to be loved or feared? This question, famously posed by Machiavelli, lies at the heart of Joseph Nye's new book. Mr. Nye, a former dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, is best known for promoting the idea of "soft power", based on persuasion and influences, as a counterpoint to "hard power", based on coercion (强迫) and force.
Mr. Nye has now turned his attention to the relationship between power and leadership, in both the political and business spheres. Machiavelli, he notes, concluded that "one ought to be both feared and loved, but as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than loved." In short, hard power is preferable to soft power. But modern leadership theories have come to the opposite conclusion.
The context of leadership is changing, they observe, and the historical emphasis on hard power is becoming outdated. In modern companies and democracies, power is increasingly diffused and traditional hierarchies (等级制) are being undermined, making soft power ever more important. But that does not mean coercion should now take a back seat to persuasion, Mr. Nye argues. Instead, he advocates a synthesis of these two views. The conclusion of The Powers to Lead, his survey of the theory of leadership, is that a combination of hard and soft power, which he calls "smart power", is the best approach.
The domination theoretical model of leadership at the moment is, apparently, the "transformational leadership pattern". Mr. Nye has performed a valuable service in rounding up and summarizing the various academic studies and theories of leadership into a single, slim volume. He examines different approaches to leadership, the morality of leadership and how the wider context can determine the effectiveness of a particular leader. There are plenty of anecdotes and examples, both historical and contemporary, political and corporate.
Leadership is a slippery(狡猾的) subject, and as he depicts(描述) various theories, even Mr. Nye never quite nails the jerry to the wall. He is at his most interesting when discussing the moral aspects of leadership—in particular, the question of whether it is sometimes necessary for good leaders to lie— and he provides a helpful 12-point summary of his conclusions. A recurring theme is that as circumstances change, different sorts of leaders are required, a leader who thrives in one environment may struggle in another, and vice versa. Ultimately that is just a fancy way of saying that leadership offers no easy answers.
According to the passage, the reason why Mr. Nye is so popular is that ______.
A he advocates that leaders should be feared
B he advocates the importance of persuasion and influence
C he was once the leader of Harvard
D he thinks that coercion should give way to persuasion
From this passage, we learn that modern leadership theories ______.
A are contrary to Mr. Machiavelli's idea of hard power
B stress the function of hard power
C believe that power should be concentrated
D believe that coercion and force are useless
What does the word synthesis (Para 3, line 5) mean?
What makes Mr. Nye's book The Powers to Lead so valuable?
A It overthrows the old theories of Mr. Machiavelli.
B It summarizes various studies briefly.
C It depicts modern leadership theories.
D It tells many famous leaders' experience in management.
According to the author, what is the most interesting depict in Mr. Nye's book The Powers to Lead?
A The anecdotes and examples he gave.
B The various theories.
C The morality of leadership.
D The experience of his own.
Someday, in (1) the outer planets of our solar system, humankind will want to do (2) send small probes that merely fly rapidly by them. In time, we will want (3) spacecraft that will go (4) orbit around these alien planets, land robots on their moons, and even return rock and soil sample back to Earth. (5) , we will want to send humans to their moons, on at least (6) which liquid water—the fundamental requirement for life (7) we know it—is believed to be (8)
For missions such as these, we will need rockets powered by a nuclear reaction (9) igniting chemicals. Chemical rockets have served us well. But the (10) low amount of energy that they can deliver for a given mass of fuel is a severe (11) when dispatching spacecraft (12) long distances. To reach the outer planets, for example, a chemically-powered space vehicle must (13) fuel by having a very small mass and making (14) use of gravity "assists", in which the craft maneuvers close enough to a planet for the planet's gravity to propel the craft forward, (15) its speed.
In technical term, chemical rockets have low (16) velocity growth, which means that their exhaust velocities are not high enough to (17) very high speed to the rocket. Nuclear rockets, (18) their chemical counterparts, could impart a maximum velocity of (19) about 22 kilometers a second. Such a high velocity would make possible a direct path to Saturn (土星), reducing travel time from about seven years to as (20) as three.
A more than
B no more than
C not more than
D nothing but
A a couple of
B a number of
C a large quantity of
D a set of
A other than
B regardless of
C instead of
D rather than
A in contrast to
B in addition
C with regard to
D contrary to
______(必须采取有效措施) to eliminate cheating on campus.
This is a type of flies which ______(是传播疾病的媒介，能把疾病传染给其他动物).
I agreed to lend him some money, ______(前提是他及时还我).
______(通过熬夜工作)that we managed to complete our task.
They overcame all the difficulties and ______(提前两个月完工).