Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled On Happiness. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below：
E-book Price Increase May Stir Readers' Passions
In the battle over the pricing of electronic books, publishers appear to have won the first round. The price of many new releases and best sellers is about to go up, to as much as $14.99 from $ 9.99.
But there may be an insurgency(暴动)waiting to jump: e-book buyers.
Over the last year, the eagerest readers of e-books have shown a reflexive hostility to prices higher than the $ 9.99 set by online retailers for popular titles.
When digital editions have cost more, or have been delayed until after the release of hardcover versions, these unpleasant readers have organized boycotts at once and gone to the websites to leave one-star ratings and negative comments for those books and their authors.
"This book has been on the shelves for three weeks and is already in the remainder bins," wrote Wayne Fogel of The Villages, Fla., when he left a one-star review of Catherine Coulter's book "KnockOut" online. " $14.82 for the Kindle version is unbelievable. Some listings online retailers should refuse when the authors are trying to rip off their customers."
The angry commenters on online message boards could just be a vocal minority. But now, with e-books scheduled to cost $12.99 to $14.99 under new deals that publishers negotiated with the online retailers, a broader type of customers may resist the new pricing. The higher prices will go into effect within the next few months.
Predicting the behavior of consumers is always tricky. In the case of e-books, publishers are hoping that a vast majority of people who have not yet tried e-reading devices will not have any expectation of the low pricing now available from the Internet. They argue that new e-book shoppers will welcome the chance to buy digital editions at a level significantly lower than the typical price tag on a hardcover book.
"With the handheld computer, the whole notion of e-book reading is probably going to become way more mainstream than it ever has,"said Harvey Chute, who runs KindleBoards, a popular discussion forum for readers of electronic books. "And a majority of people may be coming to it new, and may only see that they are getting $ 7 off the price they would see at a bookstore."
But some e-book buyers say that since publishers do not have to pay to print, store or distribute e-books, they should be much cheaper than print books.
"I just don't want to be extorted (敲诈) ," said Joshua Levitsky, a computer technician and Kindle owner in New York. "I want to pay what it's worth. If it costs them nothing to print the paper book, which I can't believe, then they should be the same price. But I just don't see how it can be the same price."
Just what e-books are worth is a matter of debate. Publishers argue that printing and distribution represents a small proportion of the total cost of making a book.
"There are people who don't always understand what goes into an author writing and an editor editing and a publishing house with hundreds of men and women working on these books, "said Mark Gompertz, executive vice president of digital publishing at Simon & Schuster. "If you want something that has no quality to it, fine, but we're out to bring out things of quality, regardless of what type of book it is."
To consumers who do not pay much attention to the economics of publishing, though, such arguments are trumped by the fact that e-books have been available for $ 9.99 for more than a year.
"As far as I'm concerned, some online retailers have committed to the $ 9.99 price," said Wilma Sanders, a 70- year-old retiree who has homes in Plymouth, Mass., and Marco Island, Fla. She said that if e-book prices rose, she would stop buying. "I'm still a library-goer. There are enough good books out there that I don't need to pay more than I want to. I already can't keep up with what I have."
Authors have been shocked by some of the violence of the reader protests.
"The sense of entitlement of the American consumer is absolutely astonishing," said Douglas Preston, whose novel "Impact" reached as high as No. 4 on the hardcover fiction best-seller list earlier this month. "It's the Wal-Mart mentality, which in my view is very unhealthy for our country. It's this notion of not wanting to pay the real price of something."
Some online commenters attacked Mr. Preston after his publisher delayed the e-book version of his novel by four months to protect hardcover sales. Mr. Preston said he was not sure whether the protests were influencing his sales. But, he said, "It gives me pause when I get 50 e-mails saying ' I'm never buying one of your books ever again. I'm moving on, you greedy, greedy author. '"
One reason consumers may be sensitive to pricing is that they have so many other types of entertainment to occupy their time.
"Entertainment and media companies keep forgetting that consumers have a choice. They can decide not to buy the book at all," said David Pakman, a venture capitalist and former chief executive of the digital music store eMusic. "They can play a video game, use an iPod Touch." He added: "If you don't get the price tag right and make it convenient, they just go elsewhere."
John Wagoner, a 68-year-old accountant and Kindle owner in Piano, Tex., said that if e-book prices went much higher than $13 he would simply commit his time and dollars to other activities.
"They're just books," said Mr. Wagoner, who left an angry one-star review for Mr. Preston's novel. "I do other things other than reading."
Some analysts say that if consumers balk at (犹豫不前)price increases, piracy could grow rapidly.
Joel Waldfogel, a professor of business and public policy at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, saw a comparison with movies, a business where he has studied digital piracy rates. With movies, he said, piracy tends to displace paid consumption. "The real cost of consuming a movie is the two hours of undivided attention you spend," Mr. Waldfogel said. "If people are able to steal a bunch more, they will purchase less, simply because there isn't time to do all of it."
Similarly, with books, he said, "I would be scared to death about a culture of piracy taking hold. I wouldn't mess around with price increases." Publishers say price levels are not settled by any means and that now, having reached agreements where publishers — rather than retailers — set consumer prices, they have an opportunity to test different situations.
"We may introduce a book at $14.95 for a year and then move the book to $ 9.99 when we would have put out the trade paperback edition," said Dominique Raccah, chief executive of Sourcebooks, an independent publisher. "I suspect you're going to see a fair amount of experimentation."
Some e-book buyers are not interested in experiments. Mr. Fogel, who left the one-star review of the Kindle edition of Ms. Coulter's novel, said he would not pay more than $ 9.99 for a book.
"There are too many very, very good books I haven't gotten around to reading yet," said Mr. Fogel, a 68-year- old retired management consultant. He added that publishers were likely to see "supply and demand turn back on them". "I think there's going to be a general resentment of higher prices", he said.
What will incur negative comments from e-book readers?
A Limited versions of e-books.
B More versions of hardcover.
C Prolonged edition and publishing process.
D Price increase and delayed release.
What can we learn from Wayne Fogel?
A Online retailers should refuse some unwelcome listings.
B Paper-book retailers usually overcharge e-book readers.
C Most of e-books are selected from the remainder bins.
D Online retailers should handle the one-star-review listings properly.
How will the e-book industry develop in the future according to Harvey Chute?
A It would replace other types of reading.
B It would be more popular than ever.
C It would depend on the computer industry.
D It would vary from one nation to another.
Joshua Levitsky thought that ______.
A it is costly to print paper books
B the price of e-books and paper books shouldn't be the same
C it costs them nothing to print the e-books
D people should pay what it's worth when buying e-books
Mark Gompertz argued that ______.
A e-book publishing costs more money
B e-book needs no editors and publishing houses
C it needs more people to publish e-books
D it is costly to publish e-books of quality
What did Douglas Preston think is unhealthy for the country?
A Disrespect of the true value of fine works.
B Cheap products consumption tendency.
C Increased bargaining power of the customers.
D Cheap products strategy of the retailers.
Consumers are sensitive to the pricing because they ______.
A can choose pirate books at a lower price
B prefer price to convenience
C borrow books from library free of charge
D have other entertainment choices
According to Joel Waldfogel the piracy of film shows a tendency to displace ______.
That publishers set consumer prices will generate a chance to ______ for publishers.
According to Mr. Fogel, higher prices of e-book will arouse ______ of the e-book buyers.
A He has agreed to take care of her plants.
B He's bringing some plants back from his trip.
C He's not very responsible.
D He'll be away for a while.
A Help Laura with her paper next week.
B Ask Laura to clean the apartment by herself.
C Ask someone else to clean the apartment with Laura.
D Ask Laura to wait until next weekend to do the cleaning.
A She hasn't prepared the course outline yet.
B She'll distribute the course outline during the next class.
C There aren't any copies of the course outline left.
D The man can get the course outline after class.
A He hasn't read the committee's report yet.
B He'll encourage the committee to finish the report soon.
C The committee took longer to finish the report than expected.
D The committee's report contains mistakes.
A Driving to California is cheaper.
B He prefers taking the train.
C The woman should take care of the money.
D The expense for their trip is too much.
A The man doesn't lose any weight.
B The man is still eating too much.
C The man should lose weight.
D The man has worked hard to lose weight.
A She should have done that earlier.
B She would be busy with her exam.
C She has enough time to do that before the exam.
D She has forgot the exam completely.
A They will go to visit Mary's mother.
B They will recommend the play to others.
C They will go to see the play themselves.
D They will make a play by themselves.
A It relates the story of Spider-Man.
B It tells the story of Stan Lee.
C It gives advice on what we should read.
D It is about Robin Bell's life story.
A To build up his own company.
B To satisfy people's needs for new superheroes.
C To write script for film companies.
D To save Marvel Comics from bankruptcy.
A A fly crawling up a wall gave him the inspiration.
B A young guy with problems gave him the inspiration.
C He was inspired when talking with his colleagues.
D He got the idea when having a daydream.
A He was stricken by thunderbolt in storm days.
B He was bitten by a radioactive spider.
C He was born with the superpowers.
D He got his superpowers after falling from a building.
A There aren't enough cabinets.
B There is too much noise in the office.
C Office supplies are taking up space.
D Some teaching assistants don't have desks.
A To chat with Jack socially.
B To get help for the course.
C To hand in their assignments.
D To practice giving interviews.
A They have to get permission.
B Jack probably wouldn't like it.
C She thinks it might work.
D The other assistants should be consulted.
A He destroyed all his possessions in the work.
B The work Break Down is worth ￡ 100,000.
C He did everything himself in the exhibition.
D People thought it was a case of miracle.
A His mother didn't support his exhibition.
B His mother prevented his destruction.
C His mother refused to support him financially.
D His mother destroyed all his works.
A He gave them to the art world.
B He gave them to his supporters.
C He sold them to a Brazilian gallery.
D He buried all the remains at last.
A The Brazilian gallery offered him financial support.
B The Brazilian gallery invited him to repeat Break Down.
C The Brazilian gallery offered a job to him.
D The Brazilian gallery wanted to collect his works.
A He learned the daily work of a chef.
B He got the idea of going to cookery school.
C He managed to open his own bakeshop.
D He learned to bake Portuguese bread.
A His recipes are rather practical.
B He offers free food on the show.
C His viewers like his personality.
D People like his food very much.
A He uses very few spices in food.
B His recipes are difficult to learn.
C His big secret is cooking with fresh ingredients.
D People can find many of his recipes online.
A To have a party with new friends.
B To share their opinions with peers.
C To take part in a seminar on specific topics.
D To practice making informative speeches.
A Boring and difficult.
B Fascinating and informative.
C Interesting and challenging.
D Obscure and ambiguous.
A PowerPoint slides.
B Lunch talk.
C Public speaking.
D Informative speaking.
Information has gone from scarce to superabundant. That brings huge new (1)_______, but also big headaches. The world contains an unimaginably vast amount of (2)_______information which is getting ever vaster ever more rapidly. This makes it possible to do many things that (3)_______could not be done: (4)_______business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime and so on. Managed well, the data can be used to (5)_______new sources of economic value, provide fresh (6)_______into science and hold governments to account.
But they are also (7)_______a host of new problems. Despite the abundance of tools to capture, process and share all this information—sensors, computers, mobile phones and the like-it already exceeds the (8)_______storage space. Moreover, (9)_______________________________________________________________________. The effect is being felt everywhere, from business to science, from government to the arts. Scientists and computer engineers have coined a new term for the phenomenon: "big data". Information is made up of a collection of data and knowledge is made up of different strands of information. It can be inferred that (10)_______________________________________________________________________. The business of information management— helping organisations to make sense of their increasing data—is growing by leaps and bounds. (11)_______________________________________________________________________ , the data scientist, who combines the skills of software programmer, statistician and storyteller/artist to extract the elites of gold hidden under mountains of data.
According to the latest OECD Migration Outlook, America received 1,107,000 permanent immigrants in 2008. About 73% of them came for family re-unification, which often means they are unskilled. About 15% came as refugees, and only 7% were labour migrants, meaning they came for work. There were also 340,700 temporary migrants who came on student visas. So much family and refugee migration makes sense for humanitarian reasons, but does it make sense economically? The American economy would benefit from more skilled workers, so why do they make up such a small fraction of migrant flows?
The low fraction of labour migrants in America is due to the few work visas available. Most labour migrants must have an American employer sponsor them. Most skilled workers initially come as temporary migrants under an H1-B visa. After a few years, if your employer sponsors you, this can be converted into permanent residency.
It may seem counter-productive to want more labour migrants when unemployment is high, but immigration can actually be a source of job creation. Research from the Kauffman Foundation has found that more than half of all Silicon Valley start-ups had at least one foreign-born founder. Jennifer Hunt, an economist, has found that immigrants, who come as either students or on a H1-B, are more likely than natives to file a patent and make a profit with their innovation. But you need an employer sponsor for an H1-B. So when you migrate on this visa it's hard, at least initially, to be self-employed. While there's evidence that this is an exceptionally entrepreneurial population, America limits its numbers and designs visas to discourage entrepreneurship(创业).
The question for immigration policy reform should be how America can attract immigrants who will contribute most to economic growth. There are good reasons for the absolute number of family and humanitarian migrants. It is important to keep in mind that low-skill migrants also make a significant contribution to the American economy. But it seems odd that America makes it so hard for skilled migrants to come for work. Expanding the number of H1-Bs would be a good start. But it should also consider policies, already in place in Britain and Australia, which allow skilled migrants and students to come and work in America based on their skills and achievements.
The vast majority of migrants come to America for the purpose of ______.
Labour migrants account for a small fraction in America because ______ are limited.
Kauffman Foundation's research is cited to prove that immigration is a source of ______.
When reforming immigration policy, America should consider how to attract those who will ______.
Britain and Australia allow skilled migrants and students to come and work based on their ______.
It's a cliché(陈词滥调)—but true—that a huge obstacle to a stronger economic recovery is the lack of confidence in a strong recovery. If consumers and businesses were more confident, they would be spending, hiring and lending more freely. Pessimism and slow growth become a vicious cycle (恶性循环).
Battered confidence most obviously reflects the severity and shock of the financial collapse and the ensuing recession, including the devastating housing collapse. But there's another, less appreciated cause, disillusion (觉醒) with modern economics.
Probably without realizing it, most Americans had accepted the fundamental promises of contemporary economics. These were. First, we know enough to prevent another Great Depression; second, although we can't prevent every recession, we know enough to ensure sustained and, for the most part, strong recoveries. These propositions, supported by most economists, had worked themselves into society's belief structure.
Embracing them does not prevent economic disappointments, setbacks, worries or risks. But for most people most of the time, it does stop economic disaster. People felt protected. If you stop believing them, then you act differently. You begin shielding yourself, as best you can, against circumstances and dangers that you can't foresee but that you fear are there.
Economic models, based on past relationships and assumptions, don't capture the shift, which embodies new assumptions and beliefs. Of course, most Americans have not consciously rejected the promises of modern economics. Neither did they consciously embrace them before. Judgments were seat-of-the-pants. People simply compared the promises against the evidence. Since the 1980s, recessions had been brief and mild; modern economics had ensured crude stability. Now, that no longer applies.
It's not that economics achieved nothing. The emergency measures thrown at the crisis in many countries— exceptionally low interest rates, "stimulus" programs of extra spending and tax cuts—probably stopped another Depression. But it's also true that there's now no consensus among economists as to how to strengthen the recovery. Economists act as if they understand more than they do and presume that their policies have benefits more predictable than they actually are. It's worth remembering that the recovery's present slowdown is occurring despite measures taken to speed it up.
So modern economics has been oversold, and the public is now disbelieving. The disillusion feeds stubbornly low confidence. Because psychology is so important, the good news is that if the economy surprises on the upside, the boost to confidence could accelerate the recovery. The bad news is that if the recovery continues to disappoint, the discrediting of mainstream economic thinking will grow. The resulting intellectual void will bring forth new ideas. Some may be good, but others — though superficially appealing — will be fringe or lunatic(疯狂的).
According to the first paragraph people are hesitated to consume more freely because ______.
A they are pessimistic about the current economy
B they believe in a strong economic recovery
C they are suggested to do so by the reports
D they know the recession was deep
What does the author tell us about the fundamental promises of contemporary economics?
A They are now accepted by most Americans.
B They once got the trust of the society.
C People feel less disappointed by accepting them.
D They were put forward by renowned economists.
What does the author mean by "Judgments were seat-of-the-pants"(Line 3, Para. 5)?
A Economic models didn't reflect the new assumptions and beliefs.
B Judgments of those promises should be on the basis of evidence.
C People's judgments of those promises have changed from the 1980s.
D People dealt with promises of modern economics unconsciously.
One possible result of those measures raised by modern economics is that ______.
A they have enhanced the economic recovery
B they have avoided a deep recession
C the economy is recovering slowly
D the economists suffer from a syndrome
What may happen if people still feel disappointed in the recovery in future?
A They will consume more freely due to their battered confidence.
B Their attention will be distracted from economic recovery.
C Their thinking will tend to the mainstream economics.
D They will come up with some absurd and insane ideas.
One section of the Maytown Elementary School in rural Maytown was built in 1861. Another section was built in the late-1920s. There's a time clock in the ancient gym that was donated by the class of 1946.
This is a school that could use an update. No, scratch that. It needs to be replaced. There is no air conditioning. And there is no money right now to replace the school, which has an enrollment of 237.
You can travel the United States and find comparable, or worse, conditions in schools throughout the country. It's part of the overwhelming problem of maintaining and modernizing American infrastructure. It's hard to even get good data on the physical condition of the nation's schools. But Lawrence Summers, president's chief economic adviser, has said that 75 percent of the public schools have structural deficiencies and 25 percent have problems with their ventilation systems(通风系统).
Getting the nation's schools up to date is an enormous problem, but it's only a small part of the overall infrastructure challenge. In Pennsylvania, a state in which the governor, Ed Rendell, is all but obsessed with infrastructure, there are still thousands of bridges that either need a lot of work or should be replaced.
Schools, highways, the electric grid, water systems, ports, dams—the list can seem endless—-have to be maintained, upgraded, rebuilt or replaced if the U. S. is to remain a first-class nation with a first-class economy over the next several decades. And some entirely new infrastructure systems will have to be developed.
But these systems have to be paid for, and right now there are not enough people at the higher ranks of government trying to figure out the best ways to raise the enormous amounts of money that will be required, and the most responsible ways of spending that money. And there are not enough leaders explaining to the public how heavy this lift will be, and why it is so necessary, and what sacrifices will be required to get the job properly done.
There are sound ideas available for raising the money to rebuild America's infrastructure. These include a proposed national infrastructure bank, which would allocate public funds and also leverage private capital for the most important projects. In the absence of a national bank, it might be possible to establish regional infrastructure banks.
In an era of historically high budget deficits, the case has to be made that this is not wasteful spending but essential investments that will yield powerful returns. "If you're not willing to invest," said Governor Rendell, "you have to be willing to accept an inferior product. That's the danger we're facing.
What does the author mean by "No, scratch that. It needs to be replaced. "(Para. 2)?
A More schools like the Maytown Elementary School should be built.
B It is not necessary to have an elementary school in rural Maytown.
C The elementary school in rural Maytown should be rebuilt.
D The Maytown Elementary School should be repaired and updated.
According to the passage, what is the huge problem America is facing?
A The trouble to update and maintain its infrastructure.
B The lack of data on its infrastructure.
C The insufficiency of infrastructure funds.
D The absence of infrastructure bank.
What's the main obstacle to solving the problems of infrastructure?
A No better ways of raising the required money.
B Lack of enough leaders responsible for this.
C No better ways of allocating the public money.
D The public's reluctance to shoulder the heavy burden.
What method can be taken to raise infrastructure money?
A Seeking help from the public.
B Delaying new infrastructure system.
C Setting up infrastructure banks.
D Allocating public funds properly.
What can we learn from the last paragraph?
A It is worth to invest necessary money on infrastructure.
B The danger we're facing is no one wants to invest on infrastructure.
C It is not necessary to invest on infrastructure under high budget deficits.
D Investment on infrastructure can make profits in the long run.
The United States experienced some of the most extreme weather events in its history this spring, including deadly outbreaks of tornadoes(龙卷风), near- record flooding, drought and wildfires.
Damages from these (1) have already passed $ 32 billion, and the hurricane season, which is just beginning, is (2) to be above average, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Government scientists said Wednesday that the (3) of extreme weather has increased over the past two decades, (4) as a result of global warming caused by the (5) of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
But they were careful not to (6) humans for this year's rash of (7) events, saying that in some ways weather (8) were returning to those seen at the beginning of the last century.
"Looking at long-term patterns since 1980, indeed, (9) climatic and meteorological (气象的) events have increased," said Thomas R. Karl, director of NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. (10) a new NOAA report on 2011 extreme weather, Dr. Karl said that extremes of precipitation (降雨量)have increased as the planet warms and more water evaporates from the oceans. He also said models suggest that as carbon dioxide (11) in the atmosphere and heats the planet, droughts will increase in frequency and (12)
"But it is difficult and unlikely to discern a human fingerprint, if there is one, on the drought record of the United States," he said.
Some other climate scientists were more categorical about the human (13) to extreme climate events.
Kevin Trenberth, a (14) senior scientist, said that when the greenhouse effect caused by burning fossil fuels is added to the natural (15) of climate, weather disasters can be (16) to occur more frequently.
"Global warming is contributing to the (17) incidence of extreme weather because the environment in which all storms (18) has changed from human activities," Dr. Trenberth said in a telephone interview Wednesday. "Records are not just (19) , they are smashed. It is as clear a warning as we are going to get about (20) for the future.
A by no means
B by the way
C in part
D on average
A builds up
B breaks down
C breaks out
D builds on
______(她刚转过身去) when she burst into tears.
Due to the fact that______(蓝鲸处于灭绝的边缘), some animal protection organizations call for citizen's concern.
______ (我会给你帮助的) at that time if I hadn't been so hard up.
______(倘若没有互联网), what will the world be like now?
The building workers' sudden strike ______ (使老板处于尴尬的境地).