Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Does Higher Education Cease to Be Useful? You should write at least 150 words .following the outline given below:
Looking for Green in Blue Skies
A month before the Farnborough air show, an assortment of visionaries, inventors and oddballs, together with a couple of aviation heavyweights, gathered at Le Bourget airfield, north of Paris, for the second edition of Green Air Show.
"There is no such thing as 'green' aviation," said Olivier Jouis, head of environmental affairs at Eurocopter, one of the heavyweights there. "It's a misused word. It's a polluting industry. We can only hope to make it less so. " Progress is being made, he said, to reduce pollution in mainstream commercial flight operations and manufacturing but it is slow and increasing.
Still, alongside the makers of solar-powered planes, flying robots and airships--and the Paris Art Boomerang Club--the 52 participants in the salon included the engine maker Snecma and European Aeronautic Defense & Space proof that the mainstream is getting involved.
Technological innovation is pushing the boundaries of conventional aviation in several different directions, not least toward renewable energy use. "Renewable energy can do impossible things," Bertrand Piccard, the founder, president and sometimes pilot of Solar Impulse, said after that aircraft completed the world's first solar-powered, overnight flight this month.
Despite that exciting technical feat, commercial applications are limited, warned Paul Steele, Executive Director of the Air Transport Action Group , a Geneva-based industry lobby. "The Solar Impulse has the wing span of an A-330 but it's only carrying one person. We would need a similar wing- span to carry 200 people. It's a weight to wing-span problem," Mr. Steele said.
Solar power, generated at altitude and stored while an airliner flies its route, can, however, supply auxiliary power for in-cabin systems like lighting and air-conditioning when the plane is on the ground. According to the action group, 85 percent of auxiliary power is used at the airport gate when the main engines are stopped. Using an alternative power source could cut airline power bills by $100,000 a year per gate, it says.
Even more fuel could be saved simply by rethinking inefficient airplane routing, both on the ground and in the air. Mr. Steele said his group is lobbying for quick implementation of the European "Single Sky" coordinated control program and the U. S. Next Generation air traffic management project, both designed, in different ways, to guide airliners more directly to their destinations.
Beside greenhouse gas emissions, noise pollution is another big concern.
Airships, silent and self-supporting, are "an interesting concept" that could find a proper market in transporting non-perishable goods. Mr. Steele said, though for commercial air passengers "spending three days flying across the Atlantic is probably not what they want. "
For the mainstream passenger market a new generation of large airliner engines, reducing noise by 75 percent, will be in production by 2016, he said.
Helicopters, meanwhile, present particular noise problems, Mr. J ouis, of Eurocopter, noted. Their engines are loud and their rotors make a racket all on their own as each blade strikes the sound wake left by the preceding one.
Eurocopter is working on two noise reduction projects. "One is a passive redesign of the blade, which would cut the sound by 50 percent, while the second is an active control system that controls the pulse of the blades, "he said.
But the hot topic in green aviation at Le Bourget this year was biofuel--" probably the most exciting area that is developing quickly," Mr. Steele said.
"Three years ago it was still a day dream that you could use biofuels for aviation," he said, but in the past three years, technologies have been developed that can produce carbon-neutral, low-sulfur fuels from two plant sources, jatropha (麻风树) and camelina (亚麻荠), and from micro algae (海藻), that can be burned by jets without modifying the engine or distribution system.
"We're expecting final certification by the end of this year or by the beginning of 2011 for biofuels," Mr. Steele said. "If you get the right fuel, you can reduce what's called the carbon life-cycle footprint by 80 percent. "
One company planning to offer aviation biofuel is Solena, based in Washington, which in February announced a partnership with British Airways to develop Europe's first sustainable jet fuel plant, using waste biomass.
The company says that its technology can turn any type of agricultural, urban or industrial waste into high-quality jet fuel at a competitive price with no effect on the environment.
The process relies on molecular dissociation (分子分解), using advanced plasma (等离子体) gasification technology and the Fischer-Tropsch catalytic (催化的) reactions developed in Germany in the 1920s to produce synthetic oil, Solena's founder and chief executive, Robert Do, said in an interview.
Inorganic slag residues left as a byproduct can be used as construction material,he added.
Mr. Do skipped the green aviation salon but said he planned to present a joint project at Farnborough, with BA and the city of London. The project calls for Solena to transform urban waste from London, which would normally go to a landfill, into jet fuel, which he said B. A. had agreed to buy at a price pegged to the market price for jet fuel.
Jet fuel prices of $ 2.70 to $ 3.25 per gallon, or 71 cents to 86 cents per liter, would allow Solena's fuel to be competitive and feasible, he said. The average refinery price for jet fuel is now just above $ 2 a gallon, according to data cited by the International Air Transport Association's Web site.
Describing the proposed London plant as the "first commercial-sized biotech fuel project in the world," Mr. Do said that local government officials were assessing several locations in east London that might be suitable sites for the $ 205 million, or $ 315 million plant, which he said should process 500,000 tons of waste a year into 16 million gallons of jet fuel, while generating 20 megawatts of electricity as a byproduct. "The planning and permit phase" for the plant should be completed in about a year, with construction scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 ,he said.
In addition to the environmental benefits, the plant would add more than a thousand jobs to the economy during construction and create a further 200 long-term operating positions, he said.
Once in operation, he said, it would earn carbon credits that could be sold or traded on the European emissions market. These would be shared between Solena and B. A. , with the airline earning credits for using a "carbon neutral" fuel and Solena earning them both for producing the fuel and for preventing greenhouse emissions by eliminating landfill.
Mr. J ouis, of Eurocopter, however, questioned the project's feasibility. Fischer-Tropsch technology had never been applied on a significant scale to urban waste, he said.
In general, biofuels are not yet up to the standards needed for safety--at least not for helicopters--he added. "It's one thing to put a 50/50 fuel in one engine of a quadri-motor airplane," he said, referring to a mix of 50 percent standard fuel and 50 percent biofuel. "it's another to put it in a single- or hi-motor aircraft. "
Mr. Jouis was also skeptical about any industrial process that was purported to be totally environmentally friendly. "There's always some impact," he said.
What did Olivier Jouis say about the green aviation?
A He regarded it as a far-reaching and hard task.
B It became the mainstream in aviation industry.
C They hoped to make the aviation less polluting.
D It was impossible to make the aviation truly green.
What serves as the motivator in expanding the boundaries of conventional aviation in several different directions?
A Renewable energy use.
B Technological innovation.
C Expanded commercial need.
D Environmental requirement.
How can a plane make use of the solar power?
A The plan turns it for lighting and air-conditioning at the airport gate.
B The solar power is used as alternative power source to reduce bills.
C The plane stores it when flying for auxiliary power for in-cabin systems.
D The solar energy is stored for major power supply for the main engines.
What is the designed function of European "Single Sky" coordinated control program?
A To lead airliners more directly to their destinations.
B To find out an alternative route for the airliners.
C To make the sky clean and devoid of pollution of the air.
D To get the airliners fly more quickly and more efficiently.
What project is Eurocopter working on to reduce noise of helicopters according to Mr. Jouis?
A A direct air route and an effective air traffic controller system.
B The sufficient use of fuel and the auxiliary use of solar power.
C A passive redesign of the blade and an active control system.
D The noise-proof engines and quiet-working rotor racket blades.
According to Mr. Steele, what kind of fuel can be produced by technologies in the past three years?
A Two sources, jatropha and camelina.
B Bio-fuels for the plane engine syster.
C Bio-fuels for the distribution system.
D Carbon-free, low-sulfur fuels.
What would Solena develop in partnership with British Airways?
A The technology turning any waste into jet fuel.
B The first clean, efficient bio-fuel in Europe.
C Advanced plasma gasification technology.
D Europe's first energy-efficient jet fuel plant.
Robert Do added that they could make use of inorganic slag residues left as a byproduct as ______.
Mr. Do said that as well as the environmental benefits, London plant would create more job opportunities and long-term ______.
Mr. Jouis added that generally bio-fuels are below ______.
A The man was the only survivor of an air crash.
B People on board were frightened and tried to escape.
C The man has always been very lucky in accidents.
D A few passengers came back home safe and sound.
A In an office.
B In a restaurant.
C In a department store.
D In a factory.
A The woman thinks the maid was beautiful.
B The woman thinks the salesman exaggerated his part.
C The woman thinks the salesman was realistic.
D The woman thinks the salesman was not dramatic enough.
A They are quite different in painting skills.
B Neither of them is good at house-painting.
C They are equally good at house-painting.
D Both of them will paint the house the day after tomorrow.
A He found it unbelievable.
B He was not surprised about it.
C He found the truth unacceptable.
D He was arrogant about it.
A Lend Marsha some reference materials.
B Ask Marsha where the bookshelf is.
C Check through the books on Marsha's shelf.
D Ask Marsha if she has an extra bookshelf.
A Mother and son.
B Lawyer and client.
C Teacher and student.
D Dentist and patient.
A Professor Smith doesn't hold seminars or discussions in his lectures.
B Students sometimes fall asleep in Professor Smith's lectures.
C Professor Smith's lectures are always well attended.
D The front seats are very hard to get in English lectures.
A Because he can't find an ideal date.
B Because he is too common a person.
C Because he has failed to realize his dreams.
D Because he is deceived by Mrs. Right.
A Entering a large company without application.
B Programming human feelings into machines.
C Deciding one's best partner through a computer.
D Matching up people with questionnaires.
A It isn't reliable.
B It needs checking.
C It is definitely trustworthy.
D It won't hurt to try.
A It is closing down some factories in the US.
B It no longer offers high-paying jobs.
C The number of its employees is doubled after the restructuring.
D It is manufacturing as many cars as before.
A Over 87,000 workers will lose their jobs in auto companies.
B Many people will have to say bye-bye to their high salaries.
C The employees' laid-off has a great impact on the American business.
D America can no longer take a lead in world economy.
A They produced more cars than American manufacturers.
B They reduced car-production in America.
C They gave up more market share to the natives.
D They took over plants and manufacturing capacity.
A It is a serious threat to its competitors.
B It is not powerful enough to affect the world market.
C The cars' quality is good enough to have their own branding.
D None of the Chinese cars meet the standard in the US.
A To recite a lot of wonderful reading materials.
B To combine prefixes, suffixes and roots freely.
C To take part in a lot of good talks.
D To make as many word lists as possible.
A Guess its meaning.
B Ask somebody.
C Refer to a dictionary.
D Add it to your word list.
A Look up the new words in your notebook.
B Pay due attention to new words that you come across.
C Analyze the basic structure of the new words.
D Interrupt the conversation and ask others to explain the new words.
A It is extremely dangerous to fly in the dark.
B Noise regulations restrict the hours of airport operation.
C Some of its runways are not in good condition.
D Cargo planes produce more disturbing noises at night.
A It might increase airport capacity.
B It might lower property values.
C It might lead to effective modification of existing jet engines.
D It might cause more transportation costs to and from airports.
A The effects of noise on the quality of life.
B The role of air traffic restrictions.
C The production of quieter engines.
D The economic aspects of noise reduction.
A It is affecting our health seriously.
B It hinders our reading and writing.
C It is changing our bodies as well as our culture.
D It surprises people with unexpected messages.
A They must arrange the meeting place well in advance.
B They can postpone fixing the place till last minute.
C They needn't decide when and where to meet.
D They still have to work out detailed meeting plans.
A The texts are the revealing of the texters' characters.
B The texts are well written by the texters.
C The texts are unacceptable by others except the texter.
D The texts are shocking to others and the texter himself.
B The speakeasy.
C The spacemaker.
Large companies need a way to reach the savings of the public at large. The same problem, on a smaller (1)_________ , faces practically every company trying to develop new products and create new jobs. There can be little (2)_________ of raising the sort of sums needed from friends and people we know, and while banks may agree to provide short-term (3)_________ , they are generally unwilling to provide money on a (4)_________ basis for long-term projects. So companies turn to the public, inviting people to lend them money, or take a share in the business in (5)_________ for a share in future profits. They do this by (6)_________ stocks and shares in the business through the Stock Exchange. By doing so, they can put into circulation the savings of (7) _________ and institution, both at home and overseas. When the saver needs his money back, he does not have to go to the company with whom he (8)_________ placed it. Instead, (9)_____________________________________ . Many of the services needed both by industry and by each of us are provided by the government or by local authorities. Without hospitals, roads, electricity, telephones, railways, this country could not function. (10)_____________________________________ , requiring more money than is raised through taxes alone. The government, local authorities, and nationalized industries therefore (11)_____________________________________ .
Millions have taken to digitally downloading music, movies and photographs, but e-books have failed to find a similar following. Until recently, there were good reasons for that. A few years ago I read parts of The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People on my Palm PDA. The novelty wore off quickly. When presented with text on a screen--whether it's a mobile phone, a handheld or a computer--my eyes dart and wander rather than scan and savor, a tendency that doesn't lend itself to the patience that book reading requires.
Having followed the e-book market for more than a decade, McQuivey, an analyst with Forrester Research, says that Amazon's Kindle, the Sony Reader and forthcoming entrants from companies like Silicon Valley-based startup Plastic Logic represent the first genuine spark in the e-book segment. On the back of plenty of favorable press and a valuable nod from Oprah, Amazon has sold some 500,000 units of the original Kindle, says McQuivey. Sony, which actually brought its Reader to market more than three years ago, has sold upwards of 350,000 units.
The new products and good press may be reason for optimism, but building on those sales could be a challenge, especially at a time when the number of people who read for pleasure is in serious decline. But if Amazon,Sony and others can expand that market by adding a greater variety of reading materials, like more newspapers, magazines, blogs and textbooks, McQuivey projects a potential market of 25 to 30 million. "The thing that you have to understand about enthusiastic book readers is that they may be small in number, but they're passionate and they spend a lot of money," says McQuivey. "If there's an audience of 30 million, Amazon just needs a few million of that for it to be a good business. "
To tap that larger audience, however, e-book makers may have to significantly upgrade their offerings. Getting book chapters and blog posts onto e-readers isn't much of a challenge, but converting glossy magazine content is far more difficult. Plastic Logic, whose reader will debut (初次亮相) next year, hopes to solve that issue by converting pages into PDFs.
In the end, the real tipping point for e-books might be found on college and high-school campuses. In the not-too-distant future, I'm convinced that shelves of expensive textbooks will be replaced by downloads onto e-readers.
There were good reasons for the ______ of e-books to have millions of people to download digitally.
The author thinks that when reading text on screen he is not as ______ as he is when reading books.
McQuivey believes that by adding various reading materials, the market for e-books can ______.
Compared with getting book chapters and blog posts onto e-readers, transforming the shiny magazine content is ______.
The author strongly believes that in the near future, downloads onto e-readers will ______ expensive books.
It's no surprise that Jennifer Senior's insightful, provocative New York Magazine cover story, I Love My Children, I Hate My Life, is provoking much chatter--nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than conclude that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment pleasure, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that "the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification, nostalgia, delight." Apparently that selective, evolutionarily advantageous forgetfulness that makes women forget the pain of childbirth lasts well beyond the first years of your children's lives. According to one long-term study in California, no participants regretted having children, but 10 people in the study reported regretting not having a family.
In a society that so relentlessly celebrates procreation (生育), is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equal to admitting you support kitten-killing? It doesn't seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the childless. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn't have had kids, but unhappy childless folks--those non breeders--are bombarded with the mess age that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping, baby-size holes in their lives.
Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly, People, in Touch, and OK! present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra, Britney, and Padma tell it, raising a kid on their "own" (read: with round-the-clock help)is a piece of cake.
It's hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it's interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of happy, stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren't in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting "the Rachel" might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston.
Why does Jennifer Senior's cover story provoke heated discussion?
A Many people read articles in New York Magazine.
B Her opinion about child rearing is unusual.
C The story is an insightful and provocative one.
D Jennifer Senior's cover stories are surprising.
What's Senior's definition for happiness?
A Happiness is moment-to-moment pleasure.
B Happiness can be found in something in the past.
C Happiness is the satisfaction aroused by past events.
D Happiness can only be judged by delight degree.
Why is it unfair to compare the regrets of the parents with those of the childless?
A The childless have entirely different regrets.
B It's easier to blame nonbreeders' misery on childlessness.
C Parents will be praised more than the childless.
D Having no child causes more suffering to the childless.
Why are the images of parenthood in celebrity magazines extremely impractical?
A The parents in the magazines are almost single mothers.
B The parents in the magazines raise children all by themselves.
C The parents in the magazines raise children in a very easy way.
D The parents in the magazines raise children with constant help.
What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A With children, people will be as charming as Reese and Angelina.
B Reese and Angelina encourage people to have children.
C Children will bring people endless happiness.
D The images in the magazines are misleading ordinary people.
The downbeat economy has resulted in increasing numbers of parents and grandparents helping out their strapped adult children and grandkids with home down payments, credit-card bailouts, and spare cash--often at the same time as parents are trying to confront new retirement budgets.
"We are seeing a ton of this," says Ross Levin, an Edina, Minn. , financial adviser. "Sometimes it's a great idea and sometimes it is not. You have to make sure you put on your own oxygen mask first. "
A survey recently conducted by Creditcards. corn found that 42 percent of folks with adult children have helped them pay off ear loans, credit cards, medical bills, and more.
But helping out the kids can have its downside, and that goes beyond the obvious, like depleted savings accounts. "Helping your child buy a house often deprives the kids of one of the first key stages of adulthood, when they are working, and trying to earn, and succeeding in eventually buying their own home," says Levin. "Sometimes the best help is just giving them support and guidance and wisdom, and letting them live in a home surrounded by people in the same financial shape as they are. "
Paying off a child's or grandchild's debt can be problematic, says Levin. Parents don't want to see their kids get saddled with sky-high penalty rates and fees, but if they make it too easy for their kids to get out of debt, then it becomes just as easy for the younger generation to redig themselves into another financial hole. Siblings who don't get help can get jealous, and parents who are living lean so they can bail out their kids may start attaching more and more strings and resentments to their loans.
Experts like Levin recommend that families helping with their kids' debts work out some formal plans. They can offer to match payments their kids make, for example. They can use online sites like LoanBack. corn and Prosper. com, which help individuals arrange intrafamily (家庭内部的) loans. "It's good to put something in place that is more formal than a handshake but less onerous (繁重的) than a trip to a lawyer's office," says Hill Ferguson of LoanBack.
There are also tax and legal implications that families should consider. Too much help can make families run a foul of (违反) gift-tax rules or cost recipients valuable tax breaks for mortgage interest or child-care expenses, if they aren't handled right.
Finally, generous parents and grandparents should remember that helping their kids should come after they've satisfactorily planned for their own retirement. If they end up better off than they expect, they can always help out later, sending grandchildren to school and the like. While it may be disappointing to not be able to help out as much as you like, it's not the worst thing. Financial independence could be the most generous gift of all
What does Levin mean by "You have to make sure you put on your own oxygen mask first"?
A Oxygen mask can help people breathe better.
B Putting on the oxygen mask first is vital in emergency.
C Parents should consider problems of their own first.
D Children should solve the problem on their own.
What's the drawback of helping children buy a house according to Levin?
A Parents may be trapped in financial problem.
B Parents are likely to nurture children's laziness.
C Children may miss a critical period in adulthood.
D Children may fail to buy a home of their own.
What may happen if the children get financial aid too easily from family?
A They are likely to be more independent than ever.
B They are likely to meet financial trouble again.
C They will be reluctant to accept aid next time.
D Their peers will be jealous of them.
What's the tax and legal factor families should consider when offering children financial help?
A Too much help may lead children to turning to crime.
B Too much help is forbidden by the law.
C Too much help deprives children of valuable tax breaks.
D Too much help will be taxed heavily.
What's the author's final suggestion for parents and grandparents?
A They should help children lead a satisfactory life.
B They should be disappointed at their inability to help.
C They should help their children as much as possible.
D They should nurture children's economic independence.
All over the world, your chances of success in school and life depend more on your family circumstances than on any other factor. By age three, kids with professional parents are already a full year ahead of their poorer peers. By age 10, the (1) is three years. By then, some poor children have not (2) basic reading and math skills, and many never will. this is the age at which failure starts to become (3) .
A few school systems seem to have figured out how to (4) these gaps. Finland ensures that every child completes basic education and meets a strict (5) . In the United States, KIPP charter schools enroll students from the poorest families and ensure that almost every one of them graduates high school--80 percent make it to college. Singapore (6) its achievement gap among ethnic minorities from 17 percent to 5 percent over 20 years.
These success stories offer (7) for the rest of us. First, get children into school early. High-quality preschooling does more for a child's chances in school and life than any other educational (8) . One study, which began in the 1960s, (9) two groups of students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Some were given the opportunity to attend a high-quality preschool; others were not. Thirty-five years later, the kids who went to preschool were earning more, had better jobs, and were less (10) to have been in prison or divorced.
Second, recognize that the average kid spends about half his waking hours up (11) the age of 18 outside of school---don't (12) that time. KIPP students spend 60 percent more time in school than the average American student. They arrive earlier, leave later, (13) more regularly, and even go to school every other Saturday. (14) , in 1996, Chile extended its school day to add the (15) of more than two more years of schooling.
Third, pour lots of effort into training teachers. Studies in the United States have shown that kids with the most effective teachers learn three times as much as those with the least effective. Systems such as Singapore's are choosy about recruiting; they (16) in training and continuing education; they (17) teachers regularly; and they award bonuses only to the top performers.
Finally, recognize the value of individualized (18) . In Finland, kids who start to struggle receive one-on-one support from their teachers. (19) one in three Finnish students also gets extra help from a tutor each year. (20) we can learn the lesson of what works, we can build on it.
Some crops are relatively high yielders and ______ (优先种植以提高食物供给).
A big problem in learning English as a foreign language is ______ (缺少与说英语流利的人进行口头交流的机会).
We don't foresee any difficulties in completing the project ______ (只要我们不超预算).
The high school my daughter studies in ______ (附属于我们大学).
I went through the document again and again ______ (唯恐掉任何重要的信息).