Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled My View on Online Shopping. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
My View on Online Shopping
Few Americans stay put (固定不动的) for a lifetime. We move from town to city to suburb, from high school to college in different states, from a job in one region to a better job elsewhere, from the home where we raise our children to the home where we plan to live in retirement. With each move we are forever making new friends, who become part of our new life at that time.
For many of us the summer is a special time for forming new friendships. Today millions of Americans vacation abroad and they go not only to see new sights but also—in those places where they do not feel too strange—with the hope of meeting new people. No one really expects a vacation trip to produce a close friend. But surely the beginning of a friendship is possible? Surely in every country people value friendship?
They do. The difficulty when strangers from two countries meet is not a lack of appreciation of friendship, but different expectations about what constitutes friendship and how it comes into being. In those European countries that Americans are most likely to visit, friendship is quite sharply distinguished from other, more casual relations, and is differently related to family life. For a Frenchman, a German or an Englishman friendship is usually more particularized and carries a heavier burden of commitment.
But as we use the word, "friend" can he applied to a wide range of relationships—to someone one has known for a few weeks in a new place, to a close business associate, to a childhood playmate, to a man or woman, to a trusted confidant (心腹朋友). There are real differences among these relations for Americans—a friendship may be superficial, casual, situational or deep and enduring. But to a European, who sees only our surface behavior, the differences are not clear.
As they see it, people known and accepted temporarily, casually, flow in and out of Americans' homes with little ceremony and often with little personal commitment. They may be parents of the children's friends, house guests of neighbors, members of a committee, business associates from another town or even another country. Coming as a guest into an American home, the European visitor finds no visible landmarks. The atmosphere is relaxed. Most people, old and young, are called by first names.
Who, then, is a friend? Even simple translation from one language to another is difficult, "You see," a Frenchman explains, "if I were to say to you in France, 'This is my good friend,' that person would not be as close to me as someone about whom I said only 'This is my friend.' Anyone about whom I have to say more is really less."
In France, as in many European countries, friends generally are of the same sex, and friendship is seen as basically a relationship between men. Frenchwomen laugh at the idea that "women can't be friends," but they also admit sometimes that for women "It's a different thing." And many French people doubt the possibility of a friendship between a man and a woman. There is also the kind of relationship within a group—men and women who have worked together for a long time, who may be very close, sharing great loyalty and warmth of feeling. They may call one another—copains—a word that in English becomes "friends" but has more the feeling of "pals" or "buddies". In French eyes this is not friendship, although two members of such a group may well be friends.
For the French, friendship is a one-to-one relationship that demands a keen awareness of the other person's intellect, temperament and particular interests. A friend is someone who draws out your own best qualities, with whom you sparkle and become more of whatever the friendship draws upon. Your political philosophy assumes more depth, appreciation of a play becomes sharper, taste in food or wine is accentuated, enjoyment of a sport is intensified.
And French friendships are divided into categories. A man may play chess with a friend for thirty years without knowing his political opinions, or he may talk politics with him for as long a time without knowing about his personal life. Different friends fill different niches(合适的地方) in each person's life. These friendships are not made part of family life. A friend is not expected to spend evenings being nice to children or courteous to a deaf grandmother. These duties, also serious and enjoined, are primarily for relatives. Men who are friends may meet in a care. Intellectual friends may meet in larger groups for evenings of conversation. Working people may meet at the little bistro (小酒馆) where they drink and talk, far from the family. Marriage does not affect such friendships; wives do not have to be taken into account.
In the past in France, friendships of this kind seldom were open to any but intellectual women. Since most women's lives centered on their homes, their warmest relations with other women often went back to their girlhood. The special relationship of friendship is based on what the French value most—on the mind, on compatibility of outlook, on vivid awareness of some chosen area of life.
In Germany, in contrast with France, friendship is much more articulately a matter of feeling. Adolescents, boys and girls, form deeply sentimental attachments, walk and talk together-not so much to polish their wits as to share their hopes and fears and dreams, to form a common front against the world of school and family and to join in a kind of mutual discovery of each other's and their own inner life. Within the family, the closest relationship over a lifetime is between brothers and sisters. Outside the family, men and women find in their closest friends of the same sex the devotion of a sister, the loyalty of a brother. Appropriately, in Germany friends usually are brought into the family. Children call their father's and their mother's friends "uncle" and "aunt". Between French friends, Who have chosen each other for the congeniality of their point of view, lively disagreement and sharpness of argument are the breath of life. But for Germans, whose friendships are based on common feelings, deep disagreement on any subject that matters to both is regarded as a tragedy. Like ties of kinship, ties of friendship are meant to be irrevocably binding. Young Germans who come to the United States have great difficulty in establishing such friendships with Americans. We view friendship more tentatively, subject to changes in intensity as people move, change their jobs, marry, or discover new interests.
English friendships follow still a different pattern. Their basis is shared activity. Activities at different stages of life may be of very different kinds—discovering a common interest in school, serving together in the armed forces, taking part in a foreign mission, staying in the same country house during a crisis. In the midst of the activity, whatever it may be, people fall into step—sometimes two men or two women, sometimes two couples, sometimes three people—and find that they walk or play a game or tell stories or serve on a tiresome and exacting committee with the same easy anticipation of what each will do day by day or in some critical situation. Americans who have made English friends comment that, even years later, "You can take up just where you left off." Meeting after a long interval, friends are like a couple who begin to dance again when the orchestra strikes up after a pause. English friendships are formed outside the family circle, hut they are not, as in Germany, contrapuntal to the family nor are they, as in France, separated from the family. And a break in an English friendship comes not necessarily as a result of some irreconcilable difference of viewpoint or feeling but instead as a result of misjudgment, where one friend seriously misjudges how the other will think or feel or act, so that suddenly they are out of step.
What, then, is friendship? Looking at these different styles, including our own, each of which is related to a whole way of life, are there common elements? There is the recognition that friendships are formed, in contrast with kinship, through freedom of choice. A friend is someone who chooses and is chosen. Related to this is the sense each friend gives the other of being a special individual, on whatever grounds this recognition is based. And between friends there is inevitably a kind of equality of give-and-take. These similarities make the bridge between societies possible, and the American's characteristic openness to different styles of relationship makes it possible for him to find new friends abroad with whom he feels at home.
What does Americans' living style of keeping moving have to do with their concept of friendship'?
A It makes Americans cherish friendship very much.
B It makes Americans change friends from time to time.
C It makes Americans emotionally independent of each other.
D It makes Americans care more about family than friends.
Why do many Americans go abroad for holiday?
A To learn new language.
B To increase their knowledge.
C To enjoy better climate.
D To see new sights and make new friends.
What is the main difficulty in making friends across countries?
A Differences in expectations to friendship.
B A lack of appreciation of friendship.
C Differences in language.
D Differences in living styles.
What do Frenchwomen think of friendship between women?
A They agree that women can't be friends.
B They think that women can he friends but women's friendships are different from men's.
C Some of them believe in friendship between women.
D They believe that friendships exist only in the same sex.
In France, who undertake duties such as being nice to children or courteous to a deaf grandmother?
Why did Frenchwomen except intellectual women seldom have friendship which is independent of their family in the past?
A Because most of them did not have a job.
B Because they only had close friends in their girlhood.
C Because they usually focused their lives on their families.
D Because they were dependent on their husbands.
Germans regard deep disagreement on any subject that matters to both of the two friends as a tragedy, because ______.
A their friendship is based on common feelings
B they make friends just to enlarge their knowledge
C they consider friends the most important people in their life
D they can't tolerate any difference between each other
For ______, friendship often changes in intensity when people move, change their jobs, marry, or discover new interests.
______, in which people can easily anticipate what each other will do day by day, leads to the formation of English friendship.
Different from kinship, friendship is the result of ______, which is the common element of friendships of different styles.
A She isn't ready to cooperate with the man.
B She's surprised the man chose her.
C She doesn't understand why the man didn't work.
D She thinks it's difficult to find a partner.
A She just finished studying for the exam.
B She is not certain about what materials will be covered on the exam.
C She needs to prepare a little more for the exam.
D She is willing to help the man study for the exam.
A The man has already spoken to Professor Wang.
B Professor Wang will probably excuse the man's absence.
C The man has never missed Professor Wang's class.
D Professor Wang is not in class today.
A He will not continue with the experiment today.
B He will work on the experiment without the woman.
C He does not know when the experiment will be finished.
D He will spend more hours on the experiment.
A She thinks Lily should take a business class.
B She gets angry with Lily at the meeting.
C She admires Lily for expressing her opinion.
D She does not understand what Lily said.
A She forgot to phone Henry this morning.
B She does not know Henry's new phone number.
C Henry's phone number has not changed.
D The man should ask Henry for the phone number.
A Looking for another job.
B Starting work later in the day.
C Talking to her boss about her schedule.
D Asking her boss for a raise in pay.
A Moving to a cheaper apartment.
B Hiring a new worker.
C Writing an ad looking for a friend.
D Finding a person to share their apartment.
A The Ice Age.
B The exhibition at the American Museum of National History.
C The Ice Age people.
D How to build houses.
A They lived in caves.
B They didn't have their language.
C They could only build houses with animal bones and skins.
D They were advanced beyond our expectation.
A They lived in caves.
B They faced their homes towards the south.
C They used animal skins as insulation.
D They made fire inside their houses.
A Meet his anthropology teacher.
B Urge the woman to finish reading the book soon.
C Read the magazine article.
D Get more information from the women.
A Something is wrong with her ear.
B The cost of the fuel is high.
C It's cheap to take bus.
D She thinks public transportation is environmental friendly.
A The problems of environment pollution.
B A material which can save fuel.
C The installation of pollution filters.
D The way to spray a coat on the engines.
A People can spray coniine oxide on their car engines easily.
B The material works as a pollution filter.
C The material saves fuel for it reflects back the heat of burning fuel.
D When burnt, the material will save fuel.
A The history of the English language.
B The invasions of Britain.
C The old English.
D The comparison between German and English.
A After the invasion of the three tribes.
B After the invasion of the Vikings.
C After the invasion in 1066.
D After Christianity became the religion of Britain.
A The Celts.
B The Jutes.
C The German.
D The Norman rulers.
C Middle English.
A All kinds of rocks.
B Waterfalls and hills.
C Plants and animals.
A The canoes can't hold many people.
B The visitors will easily lose their ways.
C The mosquitoes will eat them alive.
D The grass is so tall that it's hard for the canoes to pass.
A They could find more wild animals then.
B The grass becomes yellow which is more beautiful.
C There would be no mosquito stinging them.
D There would be fewer insects.
A They might recommend you a degree mill.
B They might introduce you programs for the purpose of making money.
C They might offer you pamphlets for certain programs.
D They might charge higher than CHEA.
A To ask for advisers' advice.
B To make sure if the school is allowed to provide distance learning program by CHEA.
C To make sure if the school offers you a degree.
D To avoid a diploma mill.
A The online program is more convenient.
B The online program costs less.
C The online program requires high technology.
D The online program offers no supervision for a person's study.
Man lives in communities. His social existence restricts his (1)________in certain directions and extends it in others. Society (2)________on him some limitations. People do not all engage in the same activities. They can be (3)________from each other by the functions they perform. This process of differentiation is called specialization. Specialization prevents many members of an industrial society from developing intelligence and (4)________. But some aspects of human society extend them beyond a point which can be (5)________by animals or animal communities lacking the features which human society (6)________possesses.
Western-type (7)________often claim that they provide "equality of opportunity" for all their citizens. At first sight it might seem that this implies the same chance for everyone of succeeding in his (8)________occupation provided he is conscious of his goal and is willing to work hard. What the phrase actually implies is something rather different—namely a competitive situation in which the number of competitors exceeds the number of rewards, (9) _______________________________________________________. However, it is only in theory that they all start equal. Even if the state offers them free education and protects them from hunger or extreme poverty, (10)_______________________________________________________. A process of invisible or hidden selection goes on which has very little to do with "equality of opportunity" in any sense. It is not the individual who selects his job; (11)_______________________________________________________
For thousands of years men have been wandering around—for pleasure, for profit, or to satisfy their curiosity. When the only means of transportation were horses, camels and small boats, travelers were already crossing seas and deserts to acquire rare goods or to visit famous places. For the pure joy of learning, scholars ventured into distant kingdoms and observed their customs. They tasted the foods; they questioned the wise men about their gods and their history; they sat in fearful admiration on the banks of newly discovered rivers. Then they went back home reflecting upon what they had seen, and perhaps they wrote a book or two about their discoveries. Slowly, nations learned about each other, men met and ideas spread—for better or worse.
There was a time, close to ours, when artists and writers traveled all over Europe and sometimes further to study ancient works of art and to exchange ideas and methods with their foreign colleagues. Poor adventurers traveled on foot while rich ones in comfort. Two centuries ago, it became fashionable for wealthy families to send their grown children to foreign countries where they would complete their education. A young man was expected to acquire good manners and a taste for literature in France, an appreciation of music in Germany, and some feeling of history in Roman Forum.
Thus all kinds of travelers learned and dreamed through the centuries. But their number was always limited, for they were only a privileged minorities—the rich, the free, the talented and the adventurous—who could enjoy a pleasure unknown by the great masses.
This is not true any more. Railroads, ships, buses, and airplanes have made travel easier, faster and cheaper, and the number of people who can spare the time and the money to take trips has grown enormously. It is not reserved to a lucky few, nowadays, to admire Inca temples, giant Buddhas, French castles and Australian kangaroos. Millions of people do each year. But instead of being called travelers, they are known as tourists and they are seen all over the world—floating down the Amazon, taking a pleasure trip by boat to Alaska, flying from Timbuktu(廷巴克图，马里) to Easter Island, and taking picture of Norwegian churches and Pakistani costumes.
The passage is mainly about ______.
What's the function of traveling according to Paragraph 1?
200 years ago, grown children from rich families were supposed to ______ in foreign countries, which became a fashion.
Why could only a limited number of people travel in the past?
Nowadays, more people mainly travel for ______.
The private car is assumed to have widened our horizons and increased our mobility. When we consider our children's mobility, they can be driven to more places than they could visit without access to a motor vehicle. However, allowing our cities to be dominated by cars has progressively eroded children's independent mobility. Children have lost much of their freedom to explore their own neighborhood or city without adult supervision.
Children's independent access to their local streets may be important for their own personal, mental and psychological development. Allowing them to get to know their own neighborhood and community gives them a 'sense of place'. This depends on active exploration, which is not provided for when children are passengers in cars. Not only is it important that children be able to get to local play areas by themselves, but walking and cycling journeys to school and to other destinations provide genuine play activities in themselves.
The reduction in children's freedom may also contribute to a weakening of the sense of local community. As fewer children and adults use the streets as pedestrians(步行), these streets become less sociable places. There is less opportunity for children and adults to have the spontaneous exchanges that help to engender a feeling of community. This in itself may exacerbate(加重) ear associated with assault of children, because there are fewer adults available who know their neighbors' children, and who can look out for their safety.
As individuals, parents strive to provide the best upbringing they can for their children. However, in doing so parents may be contributing to a more dangerous environment for children generally. The idea that 'streets are for cars and back yards and playgrounds are for children is a strongly held belief, and parents have little choice as individuals but to keep their children off the streets if they want to protect their safety.
In many parts of Dutch cities, and some traffic calmed precincts(区域) in Germany, residential streets are now places where cars must give way to pedestrians. In these areas, residents are accepting the view that the function of streets is not solely to provide mobility for cars. Streets may also be for social interaction, walking, cycling and playing. One of the most important aspects of these European cities, in terms of giving cities back to children, has been a range of "traffic calming" initiatives, aimed at reducing the volume and speed of traffic. These initiatives have had complex interactive effects, leading to a sense that children have been able to 'recapture' their local neighborhood, and more importantly, that they have been able to do this in safety. Recent research has demonstrated that children in many German cities have significantly higher levels of freedom to travel to places in their own neighborhood or city than children in other cities in the world.
According to the first paragraph, ______.
A motor vehicles improve children's independent mobility
B the convenience of cars has also brought bad effects upon children
C cars make children lose freedom for they are always supervised by their parents
D parents should make full use of their cars to make their children independent
Children will benefit a lot if ______.
A their parents drive them to more places
B they can get more freedom to explore some close places without adult supervision
C the cars in the city they live must give way to them
D their parents keep them off the streets for safety
What is the original purpose of the "traffic calming" initiatives in Europe?
A To make streets social places.
B To make the volume and speed of traffic reduced.
C To make streets places for children.
D To make streets more clean.
We can learn from the last sentence in the last paragraph that ______.
A the German parents do better in educating children
B the German children are braver than those in other countries in traveling
C the German children can do well without the supervision of parents
D traffic calming initiatives function well in German for children's development
The passage intends to ______.
A advocate the use of private ears
B ban the use of private cars in some places
C encourage people to make the streets more accessible to children
D build more streets for children to use
Talk to any parent of a student who took an adventurous gap year (a year between school and university when some students earn money, travel, etc. ) and a misty look will come into their eyes. There are some disasters and even the most motivated, organized gap student does require family back-up, financial, emotional and physical. The parental mistiness is not just about the brilliant experience that has matured their offspring; it is vicarious(引发同感的) living. We all wish pre-university gap years had been the fashion in our day. We can see how much tougher our kids become; how much more prepared to benefit from university or to decide positively that they are going to do something other than a degree.
Gap years are fashionable, as is reflected in the huge growth in the number of charities and private companies offering them. Pictures of Prince William toiling in Chile have helped, but the trend has been gathering steam for a decade. The range of gap packages starts with backpacking, includes working with charities, building hospitals and schools and, very commonly, working as a language assistant, teaching English. With this trend, however, comes a danger. Once parents feel that a well-structured year is essential to their would-be undergraduate's progress to a better university, a good degree, an impressive CV and well paid employment, as the gap companies' blurbs(大肆宣传) suggest it might be, then parents will start organizing—and paying for—the gaps.
Where there are disasters, according to Richard Oliver, director of the gap companies' umbrella organization, the Year Out Group, it is usually because of poor planning. That can be the fault of the company or of the student, he says, but the best insurance is thoughtful preparation. "When people get it wrong, it is usually medical or, especially among girls, it is that they have not been away from home before or because expectation does not match reality."
The point of a gap year is that it should be the time when the school leaver gets to do the thing that he or she fancies. Kids don't mature if mum and dad decide how they are going to mature. If the 18-year-old's way of maturing is to slob out on Hampstead Heath soaking up sunshine or spending a year working with fishermen in Cornwall, then that's what will be productive for that person. The consensus, however, is that some structure is an advantage and that the prime mover(行动者) needs to be the student.
The 18-year-old who was dispatched by his parents at two weeks' notice to Canada to learn to be a snowboarding instructor at a cost of ￡5,800, probably came back with little more than a hangover. The 18-year-old on the same package who worked for his fare and spent the rest of his year instructing in resorts from New Zeal-and to Switzerland, and came back to apply for university; is the positive counterbalance.
According to the first paragraph, which of the following is true about gap students?
A They will become more motivated and organized.
B They need support from their parents.
C They will live more harmoniously with their parents.
D They will get their degree more easily.
Which of the following is the reason for the popularity of gap year?
A The example Prince William set in Chile.
B The blurbs of gap companies.
C The growth of the number of charities and private companies.
D The intervention of parents.
What is one of the reasons for the disasters in a gap year?
A Poor planning.
B Irresponsibility of the gap companies.
C Gap companies' blurbs.
D The problems of insurance.
The gap year Will be meaningful for an 18-year-old if ______.
A their parents help them make a thoughtful plan
B they do what they like
C they get enough financial support from their parents
D they spend time doing nothing in Cornwall
What does the author want to tell in the last paragraph?
A The working experience from New Zealand to Switzerland is different from that in Canada.
B Earning one's living and gaining working experience will make one's gap year more meaningful.
C The high cost for a gap year is worthwhile.
D It is a positive way to have a gap year before applying for a university.
Obesity is defined as body weight of 15 percent or more above the ideal for one's height and age. (1) this criterion, about one third of the adult population of the United States is obese. The (2) of obesity vary in different races, cultures, sub-cultures, and social classes. In industrialized countries, fatness tends to be (3) correlated with socioeconomic status: people in lower social classes tend to be more obese. In economically backward nations, the direction of the correlation is reversed; the richer, the fatter. The situation in the underdeveloped world probably approximates the (4) of affairs through most of human evolution. Particularly for women, (5) pregnancies could (6) into times of scarcity, larger internal food (7) were adapted in the face of variable external reserves.
Although obesity may sound like a (n) (8) phenomenon, it is to some degree (9) relative. A study of black and white undergraduates yielded (10) results. Even though blacks, and especially black females, were heavier than whites, they were more satisfied with their weight and less likely to find weight in other people (11) Men were more concerned (12) the weight of their dates than women were, but black men were (13) likely to refuse to date a woman because of her weight.
Contemporary North American culture is (14) with thinness, particularly for women. Compared to the Rubenesque view of beauty of just a few centuries ago, the prototypes of feminine beauty (15) in the mass media today look emaciated, that is, extremely thin. The standards have even changed (16) since the 1950s, when the prototype was replete with large breasts and slightly protruding abdomen. A study of Playboy centerfolds found a ten percent decrease in the ratio of weight to height from the late 1950s to the late 1970s, (17) by a dramatic increase in the number of articles on dieting in popular women's magazines. In (18) to contemporary Western societies, some other cultures (19) beauty with bulk. This most often occurs in societies in which food is scarce, (20) women who are healthy and have more resources tend to be heavier and hence are seen as more attractive.
It's difficult to get ahead but ______(要把持领先就更难).
The local health organization is reported ______(三十年前成立的) when Mr. smith became its first mayor.
______(这些水的痕迹使很多科学家相信) that there might be some forms of life on that planet.
In previous time, ______(当鲜肉短缺是), pigeons were kept by many households as a source of food.
It was not until he arrived at the railway station ______(他才意识到忘了拿票).